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A DepED - initiated cultural gathering for the Higaonons of Gingoog City.

This gathering of natives seek to foster the relationship among the cultural community in Gingoog City and neighboring provinces.

NOTE FROM edgarabanil

This work is a collaborative work of the master teachers, school administrators of the Division of Gingoog City. I do not claim authorship of this post. This is a recovered file from the division computer which was infected with virus. Hence, the bibliography section is missing. Chapter 1 is mainly data taken from the City Planning and Development Office of Gingoog City.


Physical Characteristics and Demography of Gingoog

  1. Geography.

The city is located in the northeastern coast of Misamis Oriental, 122 kilometers east of Cagayan de Oro and 74 kilometers west ofButuanCity. It is bounded to the east by themunicipalityofMagsaysayand theprovinceofAgusan del Norte, to the south by Bukidnon; to the west by the municipalities of Claveria andMedina, Misamis Oriental, and to the north byGingoogBay. The total land area ofGingoogCityis 769.88 square kilometers or 76,988 hectares. The total land area where improvements were built up by people is 1,796.97 hectares agricultural production area is 28,680.51 hectares, while the forest production area is 11,890.00 while the forest protected area is 28,500.65 hectares.

  1. Climate

Gingoog has a Type 2 climate, which means that it has no distinct dry season. Rainfall occurs during the months of September to February. The average temperature is 27 degrees to 32 degrees on the Celsius scale. The lowest recorded temperature is 20.1 degrees Celsius while the highest is 32.7 degrees Celsius.

  1. Topography

Gingoog’s land feature is generally flat with sloping hills of intermediate heights surrounded by mountain ranges fromMt.BalatukantoMt.Lumotand portion of Bukidnon province in the Southeast and Eastward to Agusan del Norte which practically insulates the city from the Northeast monsoon and typhoons.

D. People.

Gingoog is inhabited by people of different racial aggrupations. The original inhabitants, called Higaonons, were a branch of the Manobo tribe, spread throughout Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Norte and Sur, Bukidnon, and some parts of Iligan. As of the year 2000, their number is 15,356 distributed in the 14 hinterland barangays in Gingoog. Higaonons, also known as Banwaons in Agusan has intermarriages with several Manobo tribes from the neighboring provinces ofDavao, resulting in some marked differences in appearance even among their territorial grouping. Higaonons in Gingoog usually trace their ancestry to Apo Pabuloson from the plains of Tagoloan. However, some Higaonon tribes go beyond Apo Pabuloson to Apo Entampil, the progenitor of the present Higaonons. Generally, the Higaonons have fewer numbers than the Dumagats or lowlanders. Most of them were now concentrated in the areas of Kalipay,Eureka, Sio-an and in the neighboring municipalities of Nasipit, Esperanza and Carmen in the Agusan provinces.

A great majority were Visayan speaking people from Cebu, Negros, Dumaguete,Bohol, and nearby Camiguin. Cebuanos composed the great majority at 95.97%, while the remaining racial and language grouping is 2.34%. There are a Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicolanos fromLuzonand Muslim Maranaws from the Lanao provinces which makes Gingoog truly a melting pot of people, religion and races.

On the religious arena, majority are members of the Roman Catholic Church while the rest are members of different religious group like the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Iglesia Ni Kristo, Seventh Day Adventists, small evangelical churches (Pentecostals, Baptists, etc.) and followers of Islam.

C. Present

a) Population. The 2000 census reflect that Gingoog has a population of 102, 379 which has greatly increased from the 1903 population of 2, 876. In the year 2010, the population of Gingoog will have increased to 143, 164 based on the projection by the City Planning and Development Staff under the Office of the City Mayor. Gingoog as of the year 2000 has 6, 895 households in the urban area while there are 13, 186 household in the rural areas.

There are 52, 208 men while there are 50, 033 women which means men outnumber the women in Gingoog. The dominant age group is ages 5-9 at 13, 047 while the minority age group is 75-79 which is less than 1000.

b) Education.

Public Schools

There are public and private schools inGingoogCity. As of 2007 there are 71 public elementary schools distributed in the four districts in the Division of Gingoog City. There are also 8 legislated public high schools 1 annex ofOdionganNationalHigh School, located in Barangay Talisay, and oneIntegratedSchoolinEureka. The biggest public elementary school isDonRestitutoBaolCentralSchoolwhile the biggest public secondary school isGingoogCityComprehensiveNationalHigh School.

As of latest count there are 66 Day Care Centers managed by DSWD eight private preschools, and 54 public preschools.

An external campus of theBukidnonStateUniversityprovides public tertiary and graduate education.

Brief history of the Division of Gingoog City

Years back when Gingoog was still a municipality, it was a school district of Misamis Oriental ( NOW DIVISION). As the population of the place increased, it became a chartered city in July, 1960. Efforts were exerted that it would also have its own set of educational leaders in the division level.

When Esteban C. Sarmiento was the provincial schools division superintendent, Gingoog was organized into five school districts: Gingoog, Lunao, Anakan, Odiongan, and Daan Lungsod with Mr. Virgilio S. Aguilar coordinating all the functions of the schools districts with the provincial schools division superintendent serving on an ex-oficio capacity.

In 1972, Gingoog reverted as aschool districtofMisamis Oriental.

On March 3, 1976, Gingoog became a regular division with Felicisimo Q. Patrimonio as the first schools division superintendent. Below is the complete list of superintendents from 1976 to the present.

The first district supervisor of Gingoog was Daniel Maandig (Aniscal, 2001)

For a complete listing of the schools division superintendents from 1976 to the present, see Appendix H.

Private Schools

There are several private schools in the city most of which are owned by religious congregations. These offer preschool to tertiary level of education. For a complete list of educational institutions in GIngoog City, see Appendix I

Glimpses of how some schools came to be:


Ex-Mayor Romulo Rodriguez Jr. recalled that  the presentManuelLugodElementary SchoolthenNorthCentralSchool, was chosen as school site during his father’s administration.  He said, it was the  Lugod family who exerted effort that  the Gabaldon Buildingbe established  as the children has nowhere to go for their education.

Mr. Bebito Aniscal, a Gingoog historian  wrote that Don Manuel Lugod from Nueva Ecija arrived first in Jasaan, Misamis Oriental at the height of the Spanish Regime.  He was already married to Gracia Valdevilla of Bobuntogan , Misamis Oriental when he got an invitation of Simon Teatro and Councilor Alejandro Gomez.  Then he transferred to Gingoog and became the first private school teacher in Spanish.  TheManuelLugodElementary Schoolwas named after him since it was their family who donated the area.  The first classroom before the Gabaldon building was the first floor of his house located at the corner of Rizal and Condeza Streets.

Aniscal’s book mentioned that Gabaldon school building became a garrison, when a group of Japanese soldiers arrived in Gingoog fromDavaoduring the war in 1938.  Then they constructed a tunnel whose depth was like the height of a man towardsGahubRiverto serve as their defense and possible exit.  This was confirmed by the City Mayor Ruth Guingona, who said they (she and her sister) visited the place after the war and no way some treasures were buried under the tunnel at the Gabaldon building which according to Mayor Romulo Rodriguez, their first school during his childhood.

A damage claim in 1947 Aniscal mentioned, was based on the report of Daniel Maandig, the school District Supervisor.  Name of the building:  Intermediate school building, Cost of construction – P2 500, Value at the time of damage : P 2 400, cause and date of destruction located.

Mr. Aniscal’s book was silent on the establishment of the first elementary school in Gingoog, but mentioned that after the war various elementary schools were established in different barrios.  His focus was the secondary schools being constructed in Gingoog, still after the war.


The school, presently known as Don Restituto Baol Central School started in School 1952-1953 and named Gingoog Elementary School with an area of 40, 000 square meters.

It is situated at Barangay 22, National Highway, Gingoog City with Cadastral Lot Number 1305 C-1. It is bounded in the North by the National Highway, East by Motoomull Street, South and West by subdivision owned by the heirs of Julio Mercado. The school site is registrered in accordance with the Land Registration Act in the name of the City Government of Gingoog, Philippines.

Then school site was acquired through a donation from the family of Don Restituto Adorable Baol, a prominent landed family in Gingoog on October 10, 1950 surveyed with survey plan Number Blk – 6 Psd, Title Number 131115 and Lot Number 1305.

The first school administrator of Gingoog Elementary School – as DRBCS was then known –  was Quiterio Leuterio, SY 1952-1963 according to school records on file. The school was renamed South City Central School in 1964 under the administration of school principal Elpedio Marte. The following is the list of school administrators .

1. Quiterio Leuterio                1952-1963

2. Elpedio Marte                     1963-1964

3. Melquiades Canios             1964-1965

4. Jose Sumonod                     1965-1972

5. Benedictoi Rafols                1972-1980

6. Soledad Siembra                 1980-1987

7. Isaias C. Arcay                     1987-1989

8. Percival Gaguan                  1989-1990

City Ordinance Number 29 series of 1993, introduced by Hon. Johnny “Polkim” L. Motoomull and Hon. Democrito C. Lago renamed South City Central School, along with three other public schools, into Don Restituto Bal Central School in honor of Don Restituto Baol who donated this parcel of land. Don Restituto Baol is a noted philanthropist. The remnaming of this school stemmed from the recommendations of the Local School Board during its regular meeting held last November 10, 1993 at the Mayor’s Office. It was approved on January 3, 1994 by the late City Mayor Arturo S. Lugod.

Mr. Teresito M. Saluta was the principal of  the school when it was renamed to DRBCS. The following principals were assigned after Mr. Saluta.

  1. Lora M. Villfranca             1997-1998
  2. Adelina G. Sanchez           1998-2000
  3. Isabel R. Ganaban             2000-2004
  4. Merle F. Longakit              2004-2005
  5. Aprodicio Rosiolado          2005-2006
  6. Rodrigande J. Miole          2006 to the present

One of the great improvements in the school is the on-going construction of a three storey classroom building, realized under the leadership of Dr. Myrna S. Motoomull, CEO V, the current schools division superintendent of the division of Gingoog City


Gingoog Institute (GI), a pioneering Christian educational institution in Gingoog City committed to provide a holistic Christian education to the community it served, started its humble beginning in 1946.

As one of the several Protestant schools established during the period of reconstruction and rehabilitation after World War II, Gingoog Institute as an institutions withstood many obstacles.

Before World War II broke out in 1941, the plan to put up a high school in Gingoog had already been nurtured by Rev. Graciano T. Alegado and several men who joined him with the vision of answering the educational needs of the place, which by that time; the public school education went only as far as the 7th grade.  But it was only after the war that GI became a reality.

Thus in June 20, 1946, with the untiring leadership of Rev. Alegado, after a series of conferences by the 10 incorporators, GI was established as a non-stock and non-profit corporation.  Its first classrooms and offices were temporarily housed in a building where the Gingoog Rural Bank now stands atGuno-Lugod Street.  Two years after, two special events happened to GI.  In July 6, 1949, the school was granted full government recognition and it was at this year that the school moved to its present site.  The construction of a new building was donated by the Philippine Mission of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission, of which a large amount came from Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Richards.

It was through this humble beginning, with the efforts of these men that GI became an educational landmark in Gingoog.  In 1996, GI as a corporation reached its 50 years of existence.  Thus as provided by law, it had again to register itself as a corporation.  In 1997, the new members of the Board of Trustees of which the Alumni Association was represented by its president, voted and approved the school’s new name Central Mindanao Christian College, the school being a church-related school under the UCCP Central Mindanao Conference.  The change of name too was a sign that the school was ready to embark into horizons and directions by offering tertiary education with the long term goal of making it a university in the near future.

Brief History Of Christ the King College

Christ theKingCollegewas founded by the late Father Edward Wasil, SJ, a zealous Jesuit Missionary fromNew Jersey, with the aim of evangelizing the people of Gingoog through formal education. Named Christ theKingAcademythe high school was born in 1947 in a wooden one – storey building accommodating five (5) rooms. It received government recognition for complete secondary education in 1951.

From 1947 to 1955, the Jesuits nurtured the growth of the academy. In response to the need for teachers the college course, Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education, was offered in 1948 and granted government recognition in 1955. The Grade School was opened in 1950, receiving government recognition in 1955. Curricular offerings expanded and included Associate in Arts and Associate in Commercial Science which received government recognition in 1955.

The eight – year period of Jesuit administration left the institution a school culture oriented towards forming “men and women for others”, a legacy that has been kept alive to the present day.

The administration of Christ theKingAcademywas turned over to the Columban Fathers in 1956 with the late Fr. William Adams, SSC as the first Columban Administrator. For five (5) years, the Columban Fathers painstakingly continued and enriched the spirit and objective of the founder. In 1959 government recognition was granted to the Collegiate Secretarial Course and in 1961 to Bachelor of Science in Education.

The limited number of the Columban Fathers prompted the late Archbishop James T. G. Hayes, SJ, DD of Cagayan de Oro to turn over the ownership and administration of the Academy to the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary in 1961. S. Ma. Rebecca Kiunisala was the first RVM Directress. The administration ofSacredHeartAcademy, a school established by Fr. George Kirchgesmer, SJ, inAnakanGingoogCity, was also turned over to the RVM Sisters. The renaming of the Academy to Christ theKingCollegetook place in 1962.

An increase in student population in the 1960’s led to the construction in 1964 of a three – storey building, to replace the wooden structure, as well as the Library and Science Laboratory buildings. In the same year, Bachelor of Science in Home Economics was offered.

In the 1970’s, the institution experienced a decline in enrolment in all levels due to the economic crisis and the declaration of Martial Law. However, the school’s Silver Jubilee was celebrated in 1972 as a year of thanksgiving.

In 1980, the school offered Bachelor of Science in Commerce with majors in Accounting and Banking and Finance. The High School Department was granted three – year accreditation status in 1987 by the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU).

In 1995, the school received a one million-peso (P1, 000, 000) donation from Atty. Ricardo Bolipata, a CKC alumnus. With this amount the Edward Wasil Scholarship Fund was created to provide scholarship for the poor. In 1997, with the celebration of the school’s Golden Jubilee, the Alumni Association constructed an alumni building inside the school campus. The PAASCU granted level II accredited status for the High School Department in 1999.

Christ theKingCollegecontinues to respond to the church call for evangelization and formation of leaders in the community. The school at present offersCompleteGrade Schooland High School Education and the following courses for the Tertiary level:

  • Bachelor of Arts, major in Economics and English
  • Bachelor of Science in Commerce, major in Management, Economics, Marketing and Management Accounting
  • Bachelor of Science in Accountancy
  •  Bachelor in Science in Social Work
  • Bachelor in Secondary Education, major in English and Filipino
  • Bachelor in Elementary Education, area of concentration English and Filipino
  • Bachelor of Science in Secretarial Administration major in Computer Secretarial Education
  • Two – year Midwifery Course
  • Two – year Computer Systems Design and Programming Course
  • Two – year Computer & Electronics Technology Course



Gingoog is a component city of theprovinceofMisamis Oriental. In the olden times it was just a barrio of themunicipalityofTalisayan. Then in 1908 it became a municipality, independent of Talisayan. The Presidente Municipal at that time was Don Manuel Lugod.

In July 1960 then President Carlos P. Garcia signed the law creating the city ofGingoog.

In July 1960 then President Carlos P. Garcia signed the law creating the city ofGingoog. House Bill No. 3801 was filed by Congressman Fausto Dugenio. The bill passed second and third reading and was transmitted to the Senate on March 18, 1960 (Aniscal, 2001). Passing through so many hitches, the bill finally became Republic Act No. 2668 and signed by President Carlos P. Garcia on board RPS Lapu Lapu on June 18, 1960. (Aniscal 2001, p. 58)

Today, Gingoog is headed by a mayor and assisted by a vice mayor and ten City councilors. There three sectoral representatives as regular councilors namely, ABC and SK presidents who automatically have a seat in the city council, and the recent one, sectoral representative form the indigenous people. The vice mayor presides over the weekly session to discuss issues and to form laws for the operation of the city.

The first city mayor was Julio J. Ganaban from 1060 to 1963. He was followed by Domingo C. de Lara from 1964 to 1967. Romulo Rodriguez Jr. followed in 1968 to 1971. A young politician in the person of Arturo S. Lugod followed from 1972, during the martial law years to 1975. He got a second term on holdover capacity from 1976 to September 1978 during a crisis in government. Miguel P. Paderanga assumed the mayorship when he was appointed on October 1978 to February 1980, when elections was held. He ran and got a mandate which began in March 1980 to February 1986. When EDSA Revolt broke out and Corazon C. Aquino rose to power, all officials were replaced by appointees by operation of the Freedom Constitution. Mayor Paderanga was replaced by ex-mayor Arturo S. Lugod. Atty Benjamin S. Guimong assumed office as mayor through an appointment from December 1987 to January 1988.

Arturo S. Lugod made a comeback by winning the elections in 1988 and served his term until 1992. He got another mandate in 1992 and would have served his term for six years but death cut his political career in 1994.  His vice mayor, Romulo S. Rodriguez, succeeded him as mayor from May 1994 to June 1995.Mayor Rodriguez got three straight terms from July 1995 to June 20, 2004. Ruth L. Guingona, the wife of then vice president Teofisto Guingona won the elections in May 2004 and assumed office on June 1, 2004. She got another term in 2007 elections and assumed her second term on June 1, 2007 (Gingoog City Profile, 2007)












Gingoog is a Manobo word for good luck. The word implies good fortune, thus Gingoog means the city of good luck. Gingoog originated from a thriving Manobo tribe settlement in an area known today as Barangay Daan Lungsod. The influx of mi9grants form neighboring places contributed to the city’s growth, giving rise to the necessity of expansion.

Being limited in area, the settlement had to be transferred to a more spacious site,a nd which was later relocated to Gahub-Mangiskis area, the site of the present  poblacion.This was chosen due to its potentials for socio-economic development.

In the realm of religion, the earliest natives had simply worshipped the anitos and held such respect and faith in the practice of “diwata”. After a year, Christian living was introduced by a Jesuit missionary, Padre Felix Garcia who sowed the seeds of Christianity in the area.

In 1868 Gingoog became a Spanish pueblo and a few years later it was made a regular municipality under the American regime in 1903. However, during the same period it reverted as a barrio under the municipality of Talisayan. Shortly it later regained the municipality status through the efforts of its leaders and people.

In these periods with its abundant natural resources Gingoog slowly continued to edge forward the economic progress. After World War II, the rapid increase production in agriculture and logging industry spurred a momentum of economic progress that led to the initiation of Gingoog’s early independence from the Province of Misamis Oriental.

On June 18, 1960, Gingoog became a chartered city by virtue of Republic Act 2668 signed by President Carlos P. Garcia. The late Congressman Fausto Dugenio authored the Charter status of the city. The city was created during the incumbency of Muncipal Mayor Julio J. Ganaban and Vice Mayor Arturo S. Lugod. The first elected city officials were City Mayor Domingo de Lara and Vice Mayor Romulo S. Rodriguez Jr., respectively.

In the late sixties, Gingoog suffered economic slump brought about by the inflation rate of the peso and the low crop production. This was worsened by the infestation of the dreaded coffee borers in coffee farms coupled with low buying price of coffee. In later years, the city’s electric service was stopped when CEPALCO withdrew its electric power services.

On December 17, 1978, the city finally restored its electric power supply through the national government electrification program. Electricity was provided by MORESCO II. The influx of investors, the establishment of business and small-scale industries as well as the people’s hard work, were important factors in the city’s progress.

The impact of infrastructure development and the utilization of agricultural resources greatly boosted the trade, commerce and industry. In 1982, Gingoog City, from a mere third class city was elevated to being a first class city. By 1984, it was adjudged the most outstanding component city throughout Region 10.

Then came the unexpected EDSA REVOLUTION in 1986. The local government faced the challenge of restoring back the people’s faith in the government. The concept of reconciliation and economic recovery posted the city into a new era with high hopes of improving the standard of living of the populace. The economic recovery program was continued when President Fidel V. Ramos extended his vision towards “Philippines 2000” which projected the Philippines as a newly industrialized country in the near future. The local government has moved massive infrastructure projects such as road construction/improvements, building construction, and social services development of the agri-commerce activities of the city. The influx of investors and the increase in commercial and industrial activities will be expected in the coming years.

In the following years, the city government administration shall deliver an effective approach to public services. The utilization and maximization of agricultural and natural resources shall attain the objective of belong a progressive and prosperous city of the region.


They came in search of a better place.  For years they had lived in the mountains about three kilometers from the sea, a place called Luwan, meaning load, which they had selected to settle for practical reason, for it was a slope, the easier they could load things on their backs.  It was located somewhere between Kagayha-an (Cagayan de Oro City) and Butuan-Masao (ButuanCity).  Hence, they dominated a lush country.  Until the primordial urge to gravitate to the sea was upon them.

They were a small band of Manobos.  For food, they planted various root crops, fished near the shore and hunted small game.  The men wore G-strings and shirts of fine sinamay.

Bingue and Binguela, the brother and sister team were the acknowledged leaders of the group.  And there were Ondok, Mankinaug, Mambanata, Aguipo, Kubong, Sabaa and few others.  Near the edge of the bay, they discovered a spring next to a huge lawaan tree, and they named the spring Minlawaan, after the tree.  From here, they could see the towering and majesticBalatukanMountainon the north, and gazing seaward, they could see as far as Sipaka on the west and Punta Diwata on the east.

Finding the place ideal, they started the ritual of the diwata, for no one would dare to go on a journey, or undertake anything importance, without this age-old ritual to their gods.  From a large root of the lawaan, they fashioned a wooden basin, from the earth, they molded a cooking pot.  They placed the pot in the basin, upside down, and pouring water in the basin Binguela – the seeress – intoned.

“Magbabaya, ihindo kay ta bugta na amo ag lungsuran alan sa mga sulud day sabua day a kabuhayan.”

Translation:  “God, lead us to the land where we may live, for there is only one means of livelihood for us.”

They then felt the site of the diwata to await the result, and came back the following day.  To their surprise and joy, they found the water gone from the basin and saw it in the (upside down) pot.  Knowing this to augur a good future, they named the new place Gingoog, meaning good luck.


The growth of Gingoog is intertwined with that of Christianity. In fact, had the Spaniards not conquered thePhilippines, all of the people would have been Muslims had the spread of Islam did not go unchecked by the arrival of Catholic missionaries. The Recollects arrived in Gingoog before the Jesuits came. But it was Father Felix Garcia, a Jesuit missionary from Butuan who was said to convert the pagan natives to Christianity.  In 1723 the Jesuit priest baptized Bingue to Bingue Jurado, Binguela  to Binguela Jurado, Ondok to Santiago Gundaya, Mankinaug to Javier Gundaya, Bantoo into Bartolo Condeza. Sixto Camara and Juan Condeza were also baptized. Natives surnamed Duliguiz adopted the Spanish surname Rodriguez (Aniscal, 2001 p. 2). Thus began the growth of Christianity in Gingoog. When Catholicism took root already, a parish was established with Sta. Rita de Cascia as patron saint.

The Jesuits were in Gingoog only up to the year 1956 when the Columbans took over. The Jesuits turned over the management of the school they founded, Christ theKingAcademyto the RVM sisters. The school later became Christ theKingCollege. Later, when the diocesan congregations were formed, the Society of Saint John Vianney (SSJV) priests took over the church management in Gingoog until the present time.

A list of parish priests from 1884 to the present: (Aniscal, 2001 p. 7) appears in Appendix J.

Saint Rita de Cascia – Gingoog‘s Patron Saint

May 22 is one of the most celebrated dates in Gingoog.  It is the feast of Sta. Rita, which was introduced by the Augustinian Fathers in the early 18th century.

Each date throughout the year, the church celebrate a feast of a saint, a God’s hero, usually it is the day of the Saint’s death, his birthday into eternal life.

Saint Rita died on May 22, 1457.  She was born in the year 1381 and was canonized in the year 1634. Rita grew in age and virtues.  She learned much wisdom and knowledge from a deep study of her favorite book, the crucifix.  Aware of it or not, she was following the admonition ofSt. Paulto have knowledge of Christ alone – the crucified God.

Once we commemorate the death of our love ones, we remember their past, their good works and their sacrifices while they were still here on earth.  When one comes to death, his whole human history will be revealed.  The death of Saint Rita was a victory overwhelming earthly life, like all other saints.  The salvation of their souls was much more important then their bodily lives.

The nine days novena is dedicated to the virtues which she exemplified for the faithful to emulate and inculcate.  She has been called the saint of the impossible.  Her martyrdom was humanly proven and she obtained it through her faith in God.  Saint Rita teaches us that should we believe in God and pray with faith, nothing is impossible, if we trust in Him.

The best offering for her as a gift on her prayer is a power that transcends human capabilities.  Our human capability can go beyond the mountain of possibilities through prayer and faith.

Traditionally the feast is celebrated through lavish merry making and extravagant spending.  People give more attention to entertainment rather than the Saint, for whom the church is honoring.  We deviate from the real purpose of the feast.

People are engrossed at the attraction all around.  If we get the sampling survey of the populace, majority do not know who was Saint Rita, why she was honored with a big celebration.  What attributes she had worth praising.

Everybody is encouraged to search and study Saint Rita’s secret to success in life, so we may live with it and accept it as our guiding light.






Anakan was formerly under the administration of Sta. Rita Parish in Gingoog.  The old chapel was located in the Western part of the barangay, overlooking a river.  Due to succeeding World Wars, the church building was abandoned and eventually became dilapidated.

In 1946, it was rebuilt under the supervision of Gingoog parish.  In 1959-1960, the chapel was transferred within the “tightline” a reference to the cables that pulled the logs.  This was inside the compound of Anakan Lumber Company.  A convent was built adjacent to the chapel.  Rev. Fr. William Adams was the parish priest at that time.

Anakan Chapel remained under the supervisor of Sta. Rita Parish until September 30, 1964.  On October 1, 1964 a decree from the higher officials of the church made Anakan into a parish.  The new parish covers the area to the eastern part of Gingoog bounded by theDaanLungsodRiver.  (Could beGingoogRiveras Daan Lungsod has only a creek)

Rev. Fr. William Cunnane, SSC became the first parish priest, assisted by Rev. Fr. Warren Ford, SSC.  The Holy Name Society was given the task of managing Christian activities in the parish.  At that time the Cursillo Movement began to grow.

The next parish priest was Rev. Fr. Dan Baragry, SSC assisted by Rev. Fr. Richard Pankratz, SSC.  It was at this time that the present structure of the new church building was built.

The third parish priest was Rev. Fr. Peter O’niel, SSC assisted by Rev. Fr. Noel Lynch, SSC.  The pastoral activities of the parish were sustained.

In the year 1982-83, the principle of self-reliant community emerged.  The foreign missionary priest began to leave.  The first Filipino Parish Priest was Rev. Fr. Pedro Sombilon, SSJV (Society of Saint John Vianney, an archdiocesan order).  Sombilon implemented the policy that no Holy Mass will be said on the feast day in any barangay if a disco/ball is held on the eve of any barrio fiesta.  Fr. Sombilon was not able to finish his term in Anakan because he was transferred to Camiguin.  It was Fr. Cesar Ageas, SSJV who finished his term until 1989.

On April 1989 the fifth parish priest was Rev. Fr. Roger Lood, SSJV.  He sustained the policy of Fr. Sombilon and strengthened the parish organization.  Basic ecclesial communities were established and the laity was given focus.  The Parish Pastoral Council, Knights of Columbus and Catholic Women’s League were established.

On January 15, 1994Fr. Ricardo Dancela, a young priest was assigned to replace Fr. Lood. The programs initiated by Fr. Lood were sustained, like the PPS, which is a monthly contribution for the different programs in the parish and not saying mass to a person who has not been a regular church-goer when he/she was alive. Fr. Dancela was a music-minded individual who loved signing. He was always with young parishioners having organized a band to sway the youth from drugs and other vices.

The stint of Fr. Dancela was until the last month of 2000. He was replaced on January 16, 2001 by Fr. Juliano Retiquez, who hails from Lunao. Fr. Retiquez continued to sustain the diocesan policies instituted by his predecessors and made some physical improvement in the parish church and convent.

One June 1, 2007 Fr. Roger Almonia a native of Medina, came to replace Fr. Retiquez. Fr. Almonia was known for his advocacy on clean and honest elections. Months before the elections in 2007, he warned his lay leaders and the parishioners who wished to run as barangay officials that vote buying would be sanctioned by the church-that no masses will be said indefinitely once it will be proven that candidates engaged in vote buying and the parishioners accepted money from the candidates. The election came and as usual, massive vote-buying was the name of the game. True to his word, Fr. Almonia suspended masses in barangay chapels, especially in Odiongan, Kalipay and Malibud. However, he did not suspend the saying of mass in the parish church in Anakan. It was only on December 16, 2007 that he resumed saying masses and he did the nine daily misa de gallo masses in Odiongan.


In the early 1920s two-protestant pastors who were establishing churches in the provinces of Agusan and Surigao, extended their evangelism to Gingoog, a fast developing town in Misamis Oriental.  The Rev. Domingo Cinco, Sr. and the Rev. Angel Sotto saw great potentials for expansion of their ministry in the new area, but found it difficult to maintain and follow up their ministry in the new area, but found it difficult to maintain and follow up their visits because of their already overwhelming ministerial loads.  As such only a handful were converted, and membership growth was slow.

In 138 a young minister who was serving a church in Baliangao, Misamis Occidental came to follow up on the work started by Rev Cinco and Rev. Sotto.  The Rev. Graciano T. Alegado and his wife Florentina saw the new challenges and opportunities for evangelism and ministry in the area, and decided to move their residence to Gingoog and start a new chapter in their ministry.  Their evangelistic efforts were greatly aided by the families of Mr. Anecito Daguit, a well-known carpernter.  The Canete families specially Mr. Abondio Canete; and Mr. Juan Resmeros.

Worship services were first held in Mr. Daguit’s house.  Not long after, with the help of the Canete family, a church lot was secured.  That lot is located in what is now the Lunao Cemetery, and the very spot where the first church building was erected is where now rest the bodies of its founders, the Revs. Graciano T. and Florentina Z. Alegado.

One very important factor contributing to the rapid increase in the membership of the early church was the Sta. Clara Lumber Company, one of the largest lumber companies in Mindanao.  Some of its employees were converted to Protestantism and became the core members of the church.  Once the Lunao church became fully established, the Alegados saw another opportunity for extending their ministry, and focused their evangelistic efforts on Anakan to where they later moved.

They foresaw Anakan as a fertile ground for a new ministries based on the following factors:

  1. The Anakan Lumber Company, an equally large company in comparison to Sta. Clara, with its steady increase of employees, from key staff to laborers;
  2. The strong and encouraging support of the company manager, Mr. Cecil Walter, who although was not a protestant, allowed Rev. and Mrs. Alegado to hold weekly morning devotions for the employees;
  3. The Alegados immediately earned strong support from three significant personalities in Anakan, namely, a) Mr. Gregorio Torrevillas, Sr., who was the company’s accountant; b) Mr. Pelagio Illano, chief mechanic of the company; and c) Mr. Angel Lumaban, a rich landowner in Anakan.

The powerful influences of the company and the people named above helped pave the way for evangelistic efforts by Graciano and Florentina.  Gifted in vocal and instrumental music, both used such gifts in attracting hearts and souls to the new faith and the good news.  Graciano was an accomplished guitarist and keyboard piano, accordion, and organ) player, while Florentina played both piano and organ, and conducted the choir.  Equipped with either an accordion or a portable organ, Graciano would start evangelistic meetings by playing some music to attract and signal the people to gather around, while Florentina would lead the signing of hymns with the help of some church members.  Graciano would then read some passages from the Bible and preached the word of God.  It was not uncommon or surprising that critics and non-believers would sometimes interrupt him, resulting in some heated debates.  Some of them, though, were eventually converted.

Throughout their later ministries, there were situations where both served either together in one church, or in separate churches as needs dictated.  When both served in one church, the various responsibilities were distributed thus:  Graciano would take charge of parish, pulpit, and fiscal administration, while Florentina took charge of Christian Education and music ministries; and both shared visitation, evangelism, and other ministerial functions.  When serving separate churches, though, each of them was responsible for all of the above functions.  While Rev. Graciano T. Alegado was noted for his fiery “straight-to-the-heart” sermons that often were delivered extemporaneously, Rev. Florentina Alegado was equally gifted with a propensity for using thought-provoking ideas and words of wisdom that embellished her sermons.

Between the Alegado’s first visit to Lunao and their subsequent sojourn to Anakan, they had frequent visits to the poblacion of Gingoog which is located in between.  In 140 they relocated to Gingoog in order to organize a congregation from among the few members and sympathizers that lived there.  They were greatly aided in their efforts by some Protestants who were already there, one of whom was Mr. Daniel Maandig, Sr., a public school district supervisor, together with his wife who was a public school teacher.  Additionally, they gained support from the Lugod brothers – Conrado and Sulpicio, who were Rev. Alegado’s classmates in Silliman High School.  The two not only inspired the pastor, but often gave some financial support, especially Mr. Conrado Lugod and his wife Rosalia who faithfully and generously served the church in many ways.

The Alegado’s also befriended a former Silliman student who was considered one of the riches men in Gingoog.  Although he was not a protestant, his exposure and experience in Silliman Univerty made him liberal-minded and sumpathetic to ministerial endeavors.  As such, Don Fausto de Lara offered his large house in Gingoog for church use.  Services and Bible studies were held on the ground floor while the second floor served as residence of the Alegados, the Maandigs, and Atty. Pablo Reyes, another church supporter.

In 146, the church activities were transferred to a new site offered by Mr. And Mrs. Conrado Lugod.  The structure resembled a military camp, aptly because it was a remnant of a World War – Bomb shelter with thick galvanized iron for its roof and walls.  This also served as the first and temporary school building for Gingoog Institute when it opened that same year.  The multi-purpose building therefore provided classrooms for the new Gingoog Institute or G.I. as it was fondly and popularly called through the years) during weekdays, and became a place for worship services on Sundays and midweek prayer meetings on Wednesday nights.  It was also the distribution center for relief goods from the United States some of which were given to the needy, and the remainder were auctioned off, the proceeds of which were used to subsidize the salaries of the teachers.

It was when Rev. Alegado served as circuit pastor for Anakan, Lunao and Gingoog that he received a grant that started the establishment of Gingoog Institute.  Part of the money was used to purchase a parcel of land, which is now the current site of Gingoog Christian College.  He recruited and organized volunteers to build the new school building.  Church members from these three churches responded enthusiastically and contributed their time and talents through the “pahina system” where each one rendered hours of service doing whatever they could do and whatever needed to be done, under the careful supervision of Rev. Alegado and some constructions professionals.

The new site posed various challenges before the building could be constructed.  Located at the outskirt of town, the land was covered by thick and thorny shrubs, bamboo grooves, and trees of varying types and sizes, including some coconut trees.  Those involved in the work will always remember a very sad incident that caused the life of one of the “pahinistas” who happened to be a deaf-mute.  Upon seeing a huge honeycomb on top of one of the coconut trees, he took it upon himself to climb the tree in order to set the honey comb on fire a common practice to kill or drive the honeybees away).  In the process the dried coconut leaves above caught fire and so did the dried leaves and grasses below.  Unable to resist the heat above, he let go and fell to an even greater fire below, beyond any possible help and rescue.

Upon completion the new building was used permanently as school, but also served temporarily as a place of worship on Sundays and for other religious activities on some days and/or nights.  In 1949 the Alegados were called to serve the church in Cabadbaran, Agusan followed by another call by the church in Surigao the following year, where Rev. Graciano Alegado also served as moderator of the Eastern Mindanao District Conference which, at that time, included the provinces of Surigao, Agusan, Misamis Oriental and Lanao (1950-51).

In the early 1950s, the congregation of Gingoog finally obtained a piece of land in Magallanes, across the bridge from the main town.  The exact account on this development needs further research but based on available information, the new and permanent site as well as the church building of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines of Gingoog may have been made possible through donation from some foreign donor/s or mission as manifested in the original sign in front of the church bearing the name “Morgan Memorial United Evangelical Church”.  Even as an Evangelical Church, some Congregationalist ideas may have also had some influence on it since Rev. Frank Woodward who in 1917 launched his mission in northeastern Mindanao, was a Congregationalist.  Presbyterian influence is obviously evident too because most of the pastors were graduates of Silliman and Bible School or the Silliman College of Theology.

The early protestant churches in the Philippines that did not carry the mainstream denominational names that American missionaries represented such as Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, etc.  may have been identified as “United Church of Christ in the Philippines”.

The rest of the “Checkered” life of the church has now become a landmark in the piece of Gingoog City’s history.  It must be noted and recognized that the establishment and growth of the Gingoog Church would not have been possible were it not for the invaluable support and contributions of many people including, but not limited to:

  1. Mr. And Mrs. Pablo Yecpot
  2. Rev. and Mrs. Ben Maquiso, Sr.
  3. Mr. And Mrs. Salvador Mercado, Sr.
  4. Mrs. Trinidad Lugod Baol
  5. Dr. and Mrs. Leopoldo Ruiz
  6. The Valdevilla families
  7. Mr. And Mrs. Pantaleon Villegas and family
  8. Mr. And Mrs. Juanito Lambatan, Sr.
  9. Miss Maximina Jaug
  10. Mr. And Mrs. Wenceslao Zarraga (Lunao)
  11. The Manuel and Ramirez (Anakan)
  12. Mr. And Mrs. Simeon Salinas
  13. The Macarayo Families
  14. The Caduyac Families
  15. The Mangaron Families

To date there are already twenty four ministers who served the Gingoog congregation. For a complete listing, see Appendix  L.



            The earliest inhabitants of Gingoog were the Higaonons, about half a million years ago. They were the aboriginal pygmies of the Indonesians and Malays.

Higaonon came from Manobo descendant’s word “higad” meaning “go down”. They spread through out theprovinceofMisamis Orientalincluding the coastal areas.

When the Spaniards came, the Higaonons slowly drifted their way to the places near the rivers and to the high mountains. This was because of the Spaniards’ maltreatment.

The dominant group had settled in the mountains and in different barangays. There were governing laws inherited from traditions and were culturally and politically united considered as one of the dominant sectors of our society.

The Higaonons are great believers and idol worshippers. Every time they work before starting, they recite essential prayers which they called panawagan. They have their famous Kaliga festival which means to thank God for all these blessings: bountiful harvest, successful hunting expedition, installation of a new chieftain, birth of a child and any recovery from hardships and sickness.

During the Spanish times the missionaries who were the Spanish friars arrived in Daan lungsod, the old town and planted a big cross which they Higaonons call ginoo. The son of a Higaonon-Boholano named Baybayon who was also an assistant guide of a Spanish missionary in baptizing the Higaonons and turned them to Christians.

When some Spanish missionaries came, and asked the name of the place, the Higaonons pointed across and said, “Ginoo, ginoo, which means God. The missionaries thought it was the name of the place and mispronounced it as Gingoog (but pronounced G as H, Gingoog). From then on the place was called Gingoog by the Spanish friars. This story was related by Miguel Mansangcagan, the oldest son of the chieftain Julian Mansangcagan leading the dominant seven tribes in the early 19th century: Hindangon, Minalwang Upper Ohot, Lacbongan, Dampilan, Dalaw-ay and Katupa.

The Higaonons, just like other societies, followed rules and regulations to maintain peace and order.  The following were their traditional governing laws:

  1.  Panawagan or prayer should be done essentially before eating, early in the morning and before starting to work.
  2. Recite the “Dasang” during gatherings meaning fast chanting.  This is to remember Our Almighty God, the heroes and all great leaders.

Name of Higaonon hero and brave leaders:

    1.  Apo Lagawlaw (son of Paboloson from Agusan) His name is mentioned during their famous celebration “Banwaan” more on poetic prayer.
    2. ApoMalahila Mendoza – mentioned in the “Dasang” performed during “Kaliga” done by the Higaonon from the mountains of Gingoog and throughout Misamis Oriental.
    3. ApoPinalandag – A hero for Manobo at Bukidnon.  His name was mentioned during the famous celebration “Singampo”. The prayers were recited normally.
    4. Apo Mapunyaga (Kapitan Santiago) A hero from Balingasag.  Also mentioned during a Kaliga Festival.
  1.  Respecting Mother Nature.  Everytime they will go to dense forest, a short prayer will be offered to respect the nature.  Different spirit will be called:
    1.  Lawlawon – guardian of the plants
    2. Libalon – guardian of the farm, protector from worms and insects
    3. Tumbaga – incharge for our good fortune, longlife.
  2.  Listen or show obedience to their parents.  (Marriage is arranged by the parents)
  3. Keep away from the strangers and always observe the laws of our forefathers.
  4. Family must gather together during mealtime and festivities.
  5. Equally share all the harvest.
  6. Avoid conflicts.  Conflicts are settled by the elders or the chieftain.

A dumalong or a tribal reconciliation will be done attended by all elders and “datus” especially conflicts between two tribes.


Kaliga – is the famous thanksgiving celebration of the Higaonon, meaning “to thank god” for all the blessings, bountiful harvest, successful hunting, expedition, installation of new chieftain, birth of a child and any recoveries from hardship and sickness.

Kaliga – means Psalm (song) the one who leads the ritual is known a Kaligan (Psalmist).  The famous kaligan can chant to two hours.  The whole celebration will last two to three days.  But from the origin the traditional kaligan will last five to seven days.

The Main Parts

  1.  Panawagan – An opening prayer.  It will be recited or in a song (limbay)
  2. Dasang – A fast chanting.  It will start with adoration to God Almighty, God the Father “Amay Day” followed by reciting of the history of the famous people, heroes and the dwelling place.
  3. Offering of Symbols – a bonfire or lighting of torch.

Prepare the following:

  1.  Preparation of seven sliced betel nut (buyo) wrapped with banana leaves
  2. Porcelain plates
  3. Hand needle with white thread
  4. Seven coins
  5. Locally made wine.

(All the things will be placed on the porcelain plates and the locally made wine at side and the torch or candle)

  1.  Kaligan (Psaml or verses) will be sang starting with confession of sins committed by men; thanksgiving for gifts and graces received from God, for his love, help and protection.  This will be done continuously and all the kaligans will do their share one after the other.
  2. Dugso –meaning dance.  When the chanting starts, all the participants will form a circle, holding hands and dance moving in clockwise, stamping feet with uniform rhythm.  This is known as dance of unity.
  3. Dawit – dawit – A ceremony of killing pigs and chickens.  It is a sort of prayer in chant asking for forgiveness in killing anima.s  The bloodshed – symbol of love and braveness (kabaya and mabalaw)

The bangkasu or altar will be brought around after getting blood from animals, place it in a porcelain and place it on top of the altar, another chant of thanks will be recited.

While the cooking is in progress kaligan will resume until everybody is ready to dine.

After a kaligan – Inagong will follow.

Inagong- means an exhibition of dances, expressing different rhythmic movement; intensifying sense of life arising from an inner perception that stimulates both mind and body;


  1.  Pattern of movement from different animals, plants and trees
  2. Gestures
  3. Space
  4. Dynamic

Different dances

  1.  Inamo dance – the body moves like a clever monkey.  It is a graceful dance around a banana tree.  This is usually danced by the elders and chieftains (body bent moves like a monkey, hands down with tipped toes)
  2. Binanog Dance – a whirling dance.  The movement is like a mighty eagle.  Flying up in a cloudless sky usually danced by the brave warriors and newly installed chieftain.
  3. Clever Mother Hen – a dance of a mother hen who is always ready to protect her chicks from an eating eagle and other cruel animals usually danced by the baes – a female leader.  With 8-10 young ladies and men.
  4. Inuwang dance – shrimps hunters and shrimps.  Ladies will move like a shrimp swimming and jumping to escape from hunters. Men will swim and hunt.  They move jumping and jumping from the stone to another stone in the river.
  5. Planting and harvest dance – harvest of corns, coffee, root crops and banana.
  6. Magical dance – to communicate to the super natural beings.  A dance to drive evil spirits.  Accompanied by drums, gongs, woods and bamboos.



Gingoog has been in existence even before Spanish times. Oral tradition has it that Chinese traders regularly docked in some places in Gingoog and its surrounding communities like Lunao and Odiongan. Pottery shards of Ming and Sung  Dynasty period found in one burial ground in sitio Dubdub, Barangay 26 (known as Cahulogan) revealed that people in Gingoog has had contact with Chinese traders in the 12th to the 14th centuries. (See Appendix A)

There is a dearth in literature about Gingoog. Local historian Bebito Aniscal has paved the way for awareness about the history of Gingoog. He started with the book Kasaysayan: Gingoog’s Search for Cultural Identity published in the year 2000. This was followed by another book entitled Gingoog Encyclopedia until his death in 2001.

The bulk of records about Gingoog were mostly in Spanish missionary records particularly the Recollect and Jesuit missionaries. Their records were mostly letters reporting to their superiors the things that happened in their area of responsibilities.

It was said that the Recollect fathers came ahead of the Jesuits by a century. The Recollects came in the 1700s while the Jesuits just followed in the 1800s. The Recollect fathers made Butuan which is already an established mission post as their place of origin in going to Gingoog. However, due to time and resource limitations, no extant records from the Recollects could be referred to enrich the Spanish history in Gingoog.

The Jesuit Letters from Mindanao is a compilation of letters sent by Jesuit missionary priests to their superiors inManila, which was then the headquarters for the entire mission in thePhilippines. Volume 4-The Dapitan and Balingasag Mission contain some vivid narratives about Gingoog, Lunao and Odiongan.

Letter No. 31. Francisco de Paula Sanchez to the Rector of the Ateneo de Manila. Gingoog, 6 May 1889 [Cartas 9:168 – 170] pp. 360 – 301.

This letter is a report about Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez’s stint in Gingoog. He reported that they went to “a small spot at the harbor of Lunao in the beautiful farm and house of Don Miguel Pelaez, the owner of the nice boat we were using…”

Father Sanchez also described the topography and geography of Gingoog in the year 1889 thus:

“Gingoog – part of the responsibility of the missionary of Talisayan- is on a wide plain beside the sea, a fertile and healthy terrain. It has nine cabecerias and of great possibilities.

On the northwest is Camiguin Island, west-northwest the Mauoa mountain range; south-southwest is that of Alagatan, very high and lengthy, whose slopes are the mountains Tinulongan and Hanupulan. Odiongan range extends from south-southeast to north-northeast. On the north-northeast rises the Diwata range, ending at the point of the same name…” (This point Father Sanchez mentioned is the present Punta Diwata, which is now part of the municipality of Carmen, Agusan del Norte.

It can be surmised that Gingoog was already a thriving community even during Spanish times. Another remarkable revelation is that Odiongan invariably called Oyungan was also very much a part of the history of Gingoog. More about Odiongan in the ensuing discussions.

The geographical description can easily be proven today. Except for Hanupulan, most of the names of place mentioned still exist today. Another observation is that the location of Gingoog during Spanish times was already in its present location and no longer in Daanlungsod. The location, described by Father Sanchez as in a “wide plain” does suit the terrain of Daanlungsod, which only has less than a hectare flat area. A few meters from the shore is already sloping up to Bagubad.

Letter No. 32. Juan Terricabras to the Mission Superior. Gingoog, 23 May 1891. [Cartas, 9:287-288] p. 462 – 463.

This letter discussed about the future of Oyungan (Odiongan) and described its geographical location in relation to the other localities in the general area ofGingoogBay. Father Terricabra reports:

“Oyungan is a river debouching into Gingoog Bay, about two leagues from the town towards Linugus, and navigable on long boat for two kilometers, on a banca for the next two. It is not very wide.” The presentOdionganRiver is already very wide. But accounts from the old people revealed thatOdionganRiver in the old times is not very wide. You can even throw a stone and easily the other side of the river. During Japanese period, Japanese warships can even navigate upriver up to Pandacdacan, which is no longer possible now. This proves that the description of the Spanish missionary Father Terricabra is true.

Father Terricabra mentioned a place called “Banua-Banua” which he said “is badly located so my predecessor had it transferred to Oyungan, a kilometer away, in order that those residing in Gingoog might found a village.”  The place Father Terricabra described as “Banua-Banua” could have been the present Anakan that, in the old was named Banog which is the Visayan word for hawk. Other missionaries referred to this place as “Banuk.”


Father Terricabra continued: “They began to mark out streets and build houses, the government house, and a shed for the church. Hence, there were two villages; one called “Oyungan” on the bar and the other, eight kilometers upriver, which took the name “Asturias” comprised of the inhabitants of the ranch Banua-Banua and a Datu with his followers from the Butuan sector.” There is no definite proof about what present place was called “Asturias” in the past (p. 462). The foregoing narrative revealed that Odiongan in the past has been organized as a regular community, with government house and a church and a shed for the church, a convent or a temporary shed for the visiting priest, if no regular priest stayed in that area. The Higaonons (or Bukidnons) referred to as pagans by the missionaries were also very much around the vicinity, sometimes causing trouble, sometimes helping solve the peace and order of the place.

The Spanish missionaries systematically organized the communities for ease in administration and evangelization process. Father Terricabra continues:

The purpose in erecting these new villages was to somehow organize the numerous groups in Gingoog which had neither king nor rook to rule them and locate them on a good site where that ranch can develop and besides, offer a refuge to many from Bohol, Camiguin and elsewhere vagabonds in search of, they say, a good place to settle and who would add to the population.”(p. 462)


At present, most Visayan people residing in Odiongan and its environs can trace their roots from either Camiguin orBohol, proving the description of Father Terricabra.

Asturias, according to Father Terricabra, “was allowed as a settlement of the still untamed Bukidnons, which they say, lived in the mountains where the river springs not far away.”The source ofOdionganRiver is inMt.Lumot, somewhere near the present Bal-ason. The previous description that it was eight kilometers upriver from Odiongan does not fit in Bal-ason because on land, it is eighteen kilometers from Barangay Santiago, which is eight kilometers from Odiongan.Asturias could be Malinao or Malibud at present.

Father Terricabra mentioned about a native called “Manhabagat” who came from Butuan and became a leader in Asturias. “He was a kapitan of a residency called “Tolosa”(the old name of Cabadbaran) ( ed. Francisco R. Demetrio, SJ, 1995) on the shore close to the mouth of Agusan River” He was described as “young, intelligent, brave and friendly. “ He limps but this did not affect his “proud gait” Manhabagat was later baptized as Ruperto. He would, however, be implicated in a massacre as will be mentioned in other missionary letters.

Letter No. 33. Jose Maria Clotet to the Rector of Ateneo de Manila Gingoog, 15 May 1889[Cartas 9: 1880 – 198]


Father Clotet here describes a native tomb which is a mound rounded with sticks and “hanging from the sticks was a small bag or balutan, about four decimeters wide containing a supply of tabacco, buyo(areca) and other delicacies for the refreshment of the dead on its way to the other world, or to appease the ire of the busao or malignant spirits.” Father exclaimed in his letter how pathetic the natives were, in believing and worshipping evil spirits.

Father Clotet reported to the Rector of the Ateneo de Manila about his scientific investigation in the composition of water in the Gahub area (it is still known today in that name). He reports thus:

West-southwest of the town the Gahub stream flows, excellent drinking water, as can be seen from the following:


Hydrometric grade          90”75

Organic substances

    decomposed into

    KO, M2nO2                      slight indices

Carbonic acid                     appreciable


  carbonates                       signs

Calcium sulphate        none

Other sulphates                few

Chlorates                             almost none

Father Clotet further described the animals and plants found in Gahub area. He continued:

“Specimens of bivalves (Cirena Orbicularis) and three species of the genus Melania. The other mollusks found in these mountains are cyclopheruous picturatus, Leptopoma vitreum, vas. Concinna, Helix bigonia, Cyclotus Caroli, and Helicina vitrine, var. minor with Nanine and Leptopoma new.”


                The fish that can be found in Gahub stream are the following:

“Gisao abundant, sufficient eels or kasili and shrimps. Wang and maupalu.”


Father Clotet also reported that “destructive typhoons do not occur” in Gingoog and that “nights were notably cool..”

Abaca which grows abundantly in Gingoog was the main crop, harvesting about “11, 000 piculs each year.”


The kinds of wood in Gingoog during Spanish times were the following:

Woods: ipil, tugas or molave, bantolinao, pangalawayon is abundant, baliton, narra are scarce…Baticulin or kaliaan abundant. Used danlog for boatmaking…”


Father Clotet also reported about the fauna he saw in Gahub area:

“It-it (Microhierax erythrogeny) a kingfisher or bansagon (Halcyon gularis) a gray-white sparrow (Haliaster pontecerianus) small kalaw or kyamitan (Penelopides Mailae) etc..”

The report of Father Clotet was very comprehensive and gave a complete picture of the flora, fauna, crops and weather system in Gingoog during Spanish times.

Letter No. 43. Ramon Llord to the Mission Superior.  Talisayan, 26 August 1890 [Cartas 9: 241 – 250]    p. 428


In this letter, Father Ramon Llord, a Jesuit missionary, reported to his mission superior about a new settlement formed in Odiongan. He reported thus:

“A new settlement is being formed on the right bar of Odiongan River with the rest of the people dispersed from the dissolved ranch of Banuk, and other families fromBoholand Camiguin. These have chosen the site in preference to many others, both because of the good harbor the river presents and the abundance of fish, the good climate it enjoys; the fertile soil, good water, the wide plain open on both sides and to the sea .If the site occupied by the ranch of Consuelo were not very convenient as a way station for those coming and going from Linugus; likewise if it were not for the hope of resettling Datus Mandablaon and Malangayon with their followers who are many and other mountain people near Linugus but living close to Consuelo agreeing with Fr. Heras’ opinion, I would suggest to you Reverend the transfer of residents of Consuelo to the bar of Odiungan.”


Father Llord also reported about the possible deployment of normal school graduates (probably from Ateneo de Manila), in the missionary areas of Gingoog, Kinoguitan and, Talisayan. He continued:

“I have information that two Normal School teachers’ graduates are coming, one from Talisayan, and another for Gingoog… If this is true there will be a teacher in at least three civil towns comprising this mission.”

Letter No. 49. Ramon Llord to Juan Heras. Gingoog, 29 December 1890

            [Cartas 9:266 – 268]

Father Llord wrote to Father Juan Heras about the things that happened during that time, especially during the dedication of the new church. He reported:

“The Church of this village was blessed on Christmas eve naturally with the splendor proper to the occasion and the joy and satisfaction of the people. The floor and the finishing touches are still missing but, God willing they shall be completed.”


The good news was followed a sad news about the trouble caused by some natives who killed four people and enslaved several others.

“On the 18th of this month, the people were alarmed somewhat. A group of armed mountain people, about 40 appeared near Gingoog. They attacked a pagan ranch located on Maapa, killed four and enslaved some others, only for the love custom of killing and enslaving and gaining money with the sale of slaves…” The assassination, according to Father Llord “: has been ordered by Manhabagat.”


The Spanish government sent a group of cuadrilleros who returned escorting 42 unbaptized Bukidnons led by a certain Datu Mantucao. Datu Mantucao was later baptized and became Kapitan Santiago. Datu Mantucao left Gingoog to fetch his other people who are in a ranch called Maapa with the mission of converting them to Christianity. The missionary father planned the formation of a settlement in the inland area two leagues from Gingoog so that the place could become a good advance post for the resettlement of the many unbaptized mountain people inhabiting the mountains and valleys between Gingoog and Kimangkil.” (Kimangkil, at present, is the name of a mountain in Claveria, which is also regarded sacred by the Higaonons where their great progenitor, Apo Entampil stayed after a great flood.

A great Higaonon leader, Libokasan Lagawlaw sired a son, Datu Gumbalan,(Demetrio, SJ 1995) who ruled the area in Northern Mindanao,including Cagayan (then known as Cagayan de Misamis). According to  Fedrico del Puerto and Ricardo de la Camara Datu Gumbalan was invited by the Spaniards to Manila, where he embraced the Christian faith and was baptized as Don Pablo. He was reportedly given a hat and a golden cane.

Libokasan Lagawlaw was the Datu of Daan Lungsod (ancient Gingoog) when the Spaniards came to subdue it in the 1880s. He was so loved by his people that the Spaniards found it hard to subjugate the people of Daan Lungsod. So they devised ways to subdue him. They invited him to a challenge by letting him hold a glass of laksoy (nipa wine) behind a cannon. They made him stand in the middle of a circle behind the cannon. If the glass of wine would spill when the cannon fires, he (Lagawlaw) should surrender to the authority of the Spanish king. The cannon fired but Lagawlaw did not budge, the glass of wine still in his hands. From that day on, the Spaniards never bothered the people of Daan Lungsod, under the leadership of Libokasan Lagawlaw.

Lagawlaw was descended from Sombo-literally beautiful lady a driect descendant of Indulom, the HIgaonon lawgiver. His father was a supernatural being “god of horizon” the summit between the sky and the earth.

When Lagawlaw died, the people were subjected to Spanish rule.





Spanish rule was disrupted by the victory of Admiral Dewey inManilaon May 1, 1898, which signaled the beginning of American Rule in thePhilippines.  Initially, the policy pursued by theUnited Stateswith respect to the different region and places inGingoogCity.  (Journal History. Ma. Luisa Carangay, Ph.D. et al. p.132. c. 2000)

In Barangay Anakan the first native couple that was baptized before Second World War were;  Santiago Condeza and Laurencia Benben.  In 1925, Anakan became a barangay/barrio.  The other early settlers who were baptized were Santiago Babano, Anastacio Rodriguez, Catalino Jumo, Edwardo Danuco, Marciano Rodriguez, Casimiro Jadol, Antonio Condeza, Antonio Majal, Duglay, Monico Cuerdo and Florentina Lactud.

The sitios of Anakan includes Mandagunot, Minculasisi,Binunuan, Kapitulangan, Binagyuhan, Taliptip and Banug.  Andres de Mata became the first Tinyente del Barrio and followed by Dr. Dionesio Parulan, and then Catalino Jumo who later became the First Mayor inGingoogCity.

In 1923 Anakan Lumber Company (ALCO) was established by Mr. Cecil Walter as the first manager.  In 1947 he established school with seven classrooms, and the first PTA president was Mr. Gregorio Alamban.  The land was donated by Mrs. Intang Mendoza, with an area of more than one hectare while in 1951 Mr. Potenciano Gumbay the PTA president built three more classrooms for the intermediate.  Timbers were given by the ALCO manager Mr. Guillermo Ponce and in 1952 Dr. Dionesio Parulan became next PTA president. (Barangay Anakan Documents, 1900)

The Motoomulls of Gingoog

The Motoomulls trace their roots to their patriarch Kimatmull Motoomull an Indian fromKarachi,India(now part ofPakistan) sometime between 1910 and 1915. (Montalvan, 2003). Kimatmull settled in Silay, Negros Occidental and, together with his friend Janimull Jesswani opened a department store. There, Kimatmull met his future wife in “rather unusual circumstances” (Montalvan, 2003).A  girl from Pulupandan surnamed Asetre, was walking one day wearing a red skirt when a cow started chasing her. The scared lady went inside the store of KImatmull and climbed in one of the show cases. Seeing the beautiful lady fired up the flame in KImatmull’s heart. He eventually courted her and eventually got married. Two years after their marriage they moved toCebu, together with their firstborn daughter Rosalina.

Their business did not prosper inCebu. Then a man who owed him money came one day and offered his property in Gingoog to make up for his liability. That land was in Caligiran, Mangiskis. Then KImatmull decided to settle inMindanao. That was the start of the Motumull’s presence in GIngoog. He established a bus company Mindanao Bus Line (Montalvan, 2003). It was in Gingoog that he prospered. After his death on February 22, 1972 the City Council of Gingoog declared him an adopted son of Gingoog.

Kimatmull sired sons who figured prominently in Gingoog politics. The complete family tree can bee seen in Appendix M of this book.

In 1999 the Motoomull clan held its first Grand Reunion with the most of the second generation still alive and in attendance that was fifty years after the original couple: Kimatmull and Concepcion settled in Gingoog City. It has now grown up to the fifth generation.

At its last Grand Reunion in 2003, the clan has grown into almost two hundred level in spite of observance of family planning.



            ThePhilippines intensely prepared for their independence when Japanese government invited the country to join into a program, the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The said program aimed to unite countries with regards to culture, location, and economy. They even said that this is a way of thePhilippines to attain independence from the Americans. That is why before the war in 1935 there were already about 18,000 Japanese nationals inDavao. They engaged in abaca and ramie plantations.

On December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor inHonolulu,Hawaiiwhich was followed with an attack to thePhilippinesbecause the country was under the American regime at that time. It was the Second World War. Manuel L. Quezon was the president of thePhilippinesat that time.

Gingoog before the Japanese Occupation

In 1941, the World War II came to its peak. The worst has yet to happen.

Santiago Guanzon was the mayor  of Gingoog during that time. In an occasion when the Gingoognons celebrated the Loyalty Day, Mayor Guanzon on his speech said “Make sacrifices for the nation because it was only through it that we could show loyalty.” The sacrifice he meant was the organization of the war volunteers. He commissioned Enrique Lambatan as one of the instruments in the organization of war volunteers. Another police official who attended Loyalty Day celebration was Chief of Police Narciso Pabillore.

Two kinds of flags were raised: The Philippine flag and the American flag manifesting that it was during the Commonwealth Era. (Aniscal, 2000)

Outbreak of World War II in Mindanao

On December 8, 1941, more than fifty (50) Japanese battleships arrived inDavao. Japanese soldiers then conqueredDavaoand penetrated as far as Malaybalay in Bukidnon. On January 1942, Bartolome Paluga, one of the soldiers detained inDavao, together with 1,500 strong Philippine Constabulary was deployed to protect places from Anakan, Gingoog to Sipaka in Talisayan. They heavily guarded the place. In fact torch was used to signal in case any Japanese soldier arrives.

On May 1942, Japanese soldiers landed in Cagayan de Oro on board battleships. Encountering no resistance in Cagayan de Oro, the Japanese soldiers proceeded to Malaybalay in Bukidnon. Almost all parts oMindanaowas penetrated by the Japanese at that time. General William F. Sharp, commanding general of the Visayas-Mindanao USAFFE, surrendered to the Japanese. Some of the soldiers escaped, the others surrendered and were made prisoners of war. About 700 Filipino soldiers with Enrique Lambatan surrendered to the Japanese in Bukidnon on May 10, 1942. Surrendered with were 350 American soldiers.

Those who did not surrender grouped themselves with the other volunteers and called them as guerillas. The guerillas maintain peace and order of the refugee government; however, they attacked the Japanese silently in a hit and run system.

Gingoog during the Japanese occupation

The Japanese who arrived in Gingoog burned Magallanes to the ground. Fortunately the residents had already evacuated to the mountains because of a warning given by Otoichi Kubota, a Japanese national who was residing in Gingoog. After burning Magallanes, they established an occupation government with manager Macario Mariano of Santa Clara Lumber Company as occupation mayor. The Japanese also appointed Otoichi Kubota as Liaison Officer, with Lt. Jose Bermudez as Chief of Police. After establishing the puppet government, the Japanese left.

By then there were two sets of government in Gingoog which were the pro-Japanese and the Refugee government of the legitimate officials who were in the mountains of Kibuging when the Japanese occupied the town. Santiago Guanzon was the elected mayor and Julio Valdevilla was the vice mayor. Vice mayor Julio Valdevilla acted as mayor when they were in Kibuging because Santiago Guanzon was not able to be with the Gingoognons. In Kibuging all officials performed their daily functions.

In the town proper, Macario Mariano performed his functions as the Japanese appointed mayor.

Several days after another group of Japanese soldiers arrived in Gingoog fromDavaoand established their camp using the Gabaldon school building (nowManuelLugodElementary School) as their garrison. They constructed a tunnel whose depth was six feet towards theGahubRiver. That served as an escape route in case there is a necessity.

Short term occupation government

When the Japanese governed Gingoog, those who surrendered became slaves. They worked and worked without pay. The Japanese depend on them for their means of livelihood. They took anything from the people like pigs, chicken and farm produce. The worst thing that happened was the sexual abuse perpetrated by the Japanese against Filipino women.

About five months while the Japanese were busy training their soldiers prepared for another attack in other parts ofMindanao, the guerillas also formed in the mountains.

When Gingoog and Balingasag were vacated by the Japanese, the guerillas took the town proper. Those guerillas were from Talisayan under Major Alo Umondang. They took over and made Kubota and Mariano escape to the mountains. Umondang placed Talisayan, Camiguin and Gingoog under his command.

When Kubota learned that an American led the guerilla movement in Gingoog, he surrendered to Captain William W. Knortz.

Kubota was sent to the headquarters of Col. Ernest E. McClish, commanding officer of the military division in Misamis Oriental, Agusan and Surigao which was located in Balingasag of the fear that he will be killed in the hit and run system of the guerillas. He was given safety measure because of his good record in the pre-war times.











            After the war, the people who evacuated to the mountains came back to Gingoog where they left their properties. They started a new chapter of their lives, thus Gingoog have various developments from politics, business and other outstanding initiative of individuals.


Gingoog used to be a virgin forest. Hence, different logging concessionaries started to come in to look for business opportunities. The first to visit was a representative of the Elizalde & Company which led to the opening of a logging concession in Odiongan. Not long after, the Veloso Development company from Cebu, followed by the Santa Clara Logging Company, the Nasipit Lumber Company and the Plywood Industries, Inc. owned by Don Ramon Roces, which acted as sawmill and plywood maker of the timber coming from Santa Clara.

Every logged-over area in Gingoog was automatically occupied by migrant farmers from various places. Since logged-over areas were still public lands and prohibited for kaingin at that time, a good number of strangers are squatting said parcel of land. However, their being squatters made them convicted, which served as their right to own that land.

After the timber that made millions of pesos to logging concessionaries, came agriculture that enriched a good number of people also. Since Gingoog land was fertile, coffee and abaca industries boomed that made Gingoog as number 2 in the entire country for coffee production, next only to Batangas.

Coffee industry started to decline in the late 50’s and early 60’s when coffee berry borer started to attack at the time when the farmers knew nothing about it thus the coffee industry in Gingoog  ‘died’ with the hope of the people that technical assistance from the government could sway the farmers.

In the post-martial law days, Gingoog is contented with being a coconut-producing city. But again the economy is sluggish, as the price of copra was very low that to some farmers, copra industry is no longer profitable.

There are several city agriculturists so far who had been appointed and served the needs of the farmers. They were Ernesto P. Morit, Sr., Rey Y. Mortiz, Ceferino U. Garrido, Benjamen B. Julaton, and the recent Eduardo G. Sanchez.


There are several commercial and rural banks operating inGingoogCity: Land Bank of the Philippines, Equitable-PCI Bank, Philippine National Bank, Green Bank and the Cooperative Bank of Misamis Oriental and Gingoog Rural Bank Inc.

Aside from having these banks in the city, some Gingoognons  also serve as bank executives in other places. For instance, Edgardo B. Balsamo, BPI branch manager assigned in Cagayan de Oro City, Gloria Caturan-Rosete,  branch manager of Equitable – PCIB, Lapasan, Cagayan de Oro City and Horacio L. Soriano, General manager of Cabadbaran Rural Bank with a branch in Butuan City.


Since Gingoog is mainly dependent on the coconut industry, it is clear that the city’s economic strength is likewise dependent on copra’s market price. This handicap worsened byits location-located so near between the two highly urbanized centers-Cagayan de Oro City and Butuan City which are alike regional capitals; of Region X and the Caraga Region, respectively.

But Gingoog is really lucky. In spite of the city’s lack of heavy industries, old-timers in business here are still making good notable among whom are couple Bonifacio and Maria Moreno, operators of the Bagong Lipunan Transit which practically controls the Gingoog – Cagayan de Oro route, the shell Gasoline Station, owners of the Zoomsat Cable TV and Hardwater dealer and Lipunan Hospital Inc.; Rory and Alma Lim, proprietors of Steve Bargain House,  Steve Boutique and Furniture. Dream TV Satellite; Wenifredo and Alice Militante, with their effectively-managed Best trading, Onward Inn, Century Pension House,  Dental Clinic, Gingoog Pawnshop and commercial buildings, among others with the assistance in management of their son, Wayne and daughter Alith, a doctor of dental medicine.

Another big-timer in business in Gingoog City is couple Necesio and Maria Militante, proprietors of People’s Lumber and Hardware and Office and School supplies, who succeeded in their expansion venture- the WDM Construction which is managed by their son, Engr. Wilson Militante.

For the succeeding years, Gingoognons have been able to witness the success story of couple Antonio “Bebot” and Jocelyn Villahermosa whose textile business practically  started in small scale. But several years thereafter, it has grown big-more than enough to get the attention of the complacent attitudes of the populace insofar as business initiatives are concerned. They now owned commercial buildings and the latest is occupied by their own profit.

Another pioneer in hotel and restaurant venture with international standard are couple Rey and Dr. Gloria Mortiz, whose establishment of the Gingoog Mountain Air Hotel and Eastland restaurant has really boosted the efforts of Gingoog towards becoming a tourist destination in Northern Mindanao.

There are lots of entrepreneurs emerging in Gingoog City, most of them enterprising in fact, because they are all strangers, like the Batangueños, to cite some: Businessman Amado Hernandez, Owner of the Arvilits Bakery and Pawnshop; Nanding Reyes with the buy and sell of cars; former Vice Mayor Avelino Cañosa whose “A & E” Bakery , Pharmacy and Restaurant also made in the city’s mainstream of business; couple Greany and Jessie Lugsanay of the New Ultra mart General Merchandise, Victorio and Florencia Bucag, Domingo Cuerdo as copra buyers and several others.

Like other progressive cities, some emerging business boosted like mushrooms. With the great efforts of Mayor Ruth de Lara Guingona, Jollibee tried their luck in Gingoog City, Mercury Drug, Rose Pharmacy and lately the NOVO Shirts and Jeans, CNC and other Chinese and Taiwanese stores occupied  Sama Building. To satisfy Gingoognons  best breads, Park and Go, Julie’s and Panaderia bakeries also existed.

First Barangay Chairmen in the Poblacion:

In preparation for the referendum that the National Leadership of President Ferdinand Marcos was going to call for the Filipino people to decide for or against the 1973 Phil. Constitution, Gingoog Poblacion, just like in other areas of the country, was divided into several Citizens’ Assemblies which were then converted into barangays headed by barangay chairman.


            No doubt, the greatest achievement of this book is the transmitted knowledge it gives to the readers. This opened the door to a treasure house of history of Gingoog and its people. It gives an analysis of each and provides understanding of how Gingoog became a habitat of different groups of people. An understanding of its physical characteristics and ethnography, legends, further information of the early populace, the economic and political situations during certain era gives an insight into what factors affect society in the past and present.

On the whole, this provided a better appreciation on how Gingoog and its people continue to grow and progress with the passage of time with whom many relate how and in the future, Gingoog may be viewed as a city on the go towards a functional society because of its rich cultural and social heritage.


Appendix A



                Agay-ay means flow of water.  The place is abundant of water from the flow of the rivers of Sinang-atan, Mingkitara, Koliao and Mincapis.  Residents enjoy the ample supply of water from the rivers.

Another version of legend states that some of the prominent residents here have died at the height of their individual success – agay-ayon.


                Alagata is a binukid word which means “meeting place”.  It is the place where people would alagata, would wait for the arrival of their other companions.


                Anakan was formerly named “Banug” by the natives who first occupied the place.  The word Banug means Hawk which abundantly roamed the place and found their sanctuary.  The natives who first acquired the place were the Higaonon or Gali as we call them now.

The place was then named after a river that runs through this place where the Higaonon women delivered their babies so that the cries of the babies will not be heard by the Spaniards that roamed around the place.  The voices of the newly born babies will be surpassed by the sound of the water in the river.  It was formerly known ANAKANAN – a native term which signifies “place of birth or place where women give birth’ as time goes by it became ANAKAN.

Another legend states that there was a pregnant deer which was trapped by a lais. When the hunter slaughtered it, he discovered a young one inside the womb, thus “anakan ngausa”.


                It was Manager Cecil Walter of Anakan Lumber Company who asked a vegetable vendor what she was selling, the vendor said “bago” which was then abundant in the area.  Walter, an American seeing the sprout of the bago leaves says “bud” which later became Bagubad.


                The place was fertile and the farmers had abundant produce. The farmers would say with full satisfaction “bakidbakid ang anihon”.


                The name Bal-ason came from the word BALAAS – a kind of grass that grows in the entire place.  The residents named this place “Balaason “ and now Bal-ason.

Another version states that Bal-ason came from “balason” (sandy) due to the presence of volumes of sand and gravel going down to this valley from hills of Bulalanon, Indalong andTumulawasFallsand during heavy rains, water coming from Mamatu andMountLumotmet on this place leaving sand and soil.  Later, the natives called this “Bal-ason” as how they pronounced it.



                The original name of this barangay is Kibatangan.  Its location was the main consideration why they called it Bantaawan.  “Bantaaw”, in other words, it is overlooking the pueblo of Gingoog.  Medina Municipal Mayor Felicisimo “Dodo” Aguilar, who visited the place one time, was the one who coined the name Bantaawan.


                Binakalan was coined after a native hunter who was strangulated and eaten by a python.  Gibakal sa baksan, the natives reported this incident to their chieftain.


The place is abundant of delicious kapi, the fruits of matured rattan poles causes the delay of passers for they stopped to take rest while eating delicious kapi.  “Kapi nga nakalangan” became Capitulangan.


                Daan Lungsod means “old town” the old town ofGingoog.


                Barangay Dinawehan is formerly a settlement of the Higaonon tribes.  Dinawehan is the Higaonon word for lake.  This is the place where people take their bath and split rattan as one source of their livelihood.


                Dreamland is a sitio of Barangay Talon.  It was formerly known as Cabagtucan because many rats were found in the place.  Later it was named Dreamland.



                The name Dukdokaan was a Higaonon dialect which means to fall asleep or sleepy.  Their forefathers called this place Dukdokaan because when they had passed in this area they felt asleep because of its plain terrain.



                Long time ago, an American businessmen came to the place with a group of men and started the concession of Anakan Lumber Company.  They were impressed by the century old trees in the area, and then they repeatedly exclaimed “EUREKA” a Greek word which means “I Found It”.  Then the place is calledEurekasince then by the logging settlement.


                The place was named after a big tree having hairy stem with big rounded leaves called Hindang.  The tree is so itchy that people especially the visitors would exclaimed “kahindangon ba niining dapita”.


                Impaluhod got its name when the first settler build a house made of cogon and round timber.  Concrete nails was very hard for them to acquire so, they used bagon and rattan to tie everything from the roofings, down to the walls, floors, posts and even stairs.

They were happy and proud enough that they were the first one to make a house which they expect would last for a couple of years, when unfortunately, one morning, it totally collapsed to the ground leaving them with great dismay.  They could not say anything except, “Impaluhod” meaning to say, the house they built had crumbled to ruin.



                The legend of the place states that marriage was done thru “buya” or arrange marriage.  The tribal people were led by a datu named Gonoy.  The tribe betroths Gonoy to a beautiful woman whom who do not like him and so Gonoy ended his own life.  Days after his death, every time the moon is full; the people could hear rashes and howl and believed it was the spirit of Gonoy disturbing the place.  During the tribe ritual they named the place “kalag ni Gonoy” (spirit of Gonoy) which later became Kalagonoy.


                Kalipay is the original place for the cultural minorities called Higaonons.  It was once a sitio of Barangay Malibud.  Before, it was called “Kibangalan” the name of the river, but later on it was changed to Kalipay because the people are peace loving so the place is peaceful.  If ever there were conflict in the nearby place, people will go to Kalipay to settle the problem, and thus they name the place Kalipay.


                Barangay Kamanikan was a farm lot of the Higaonon known as UNAYAN during the time of Great Grandfather APO Pinalingdang.  APO Pinalibung grandfather of Guna Ambongan planted a number of beetle pepper (piper beetle – manika).  The leaves of this vine are used with the beetle nut chewing (pagmama) of the Lumads.  This peppermint vine can almost been seen all over the area.  The name KAMANIKAN was derived from the word Manika.  The prefix “ka” was later added thus the name manika was formed mean a place with many peppermint vine or manika.

Another version states that kamanikan came from the Higaonon root word “kamanik” which means honey bee collector.  There was a time that a kamanik does his routine in climbing a tree near an unnamed river.  There was a colony of bees up there so he was excited.  Unfortunately he fell which caused his sudden death.  Thus, Kamanikan, named for the river which was the witness to the Kamanik’s demise.


                According to folks during those early days the people used to plant corn but because of the very cold climate the plant doesn’t gave good harvest because it does not grow well.  The corn grains are very tiny and they call it “buging” which in our dialect means “digyot” or “gagmay”.  From that time on until at present the name “buging” became Kibuging forever.


                Many years ago, Kidahon was used to be a sacred place for Higaonon people.  It is where dead Higaonon members are buried.  One day, a good and kind lady Datu named Kidhaon died and was buried to this place.  And in memory to her, the people name the place “Kidahon”.  But some people say that this place was named Kidahon for the place was surrounded by tall and big trees with so many dried leaves all over the ground.  Until now, that certain place of Kidahon is prohibited by non-Higaonon.


                Lawaan was formerly named at-at, a kind of rattan that grew abundantly.  During the ALCO, it was named Lawaan – a remarkable tree that grew along river bank.


                Lawit is derived form the word “kalawit” – a kind of arrow used by the natives for hunting which later named Lawit.


                Long before it became a barrio, this place belonged to the tribe of Higaonon Chieftain Balibungan Cablas.  The first Christian who entered the area immediately prior to the entry of Anakan Lumber Company as a logging concessionaire, Calixto Mamaran was fortunate enough to practically own a big tract of land in the barrio proper as he was a close friend of Cablas.  So the people called it Mamaran.  When it was logged-over by the ALCO in 1953, an organized group of squatters came into the scene, two of which were the Medina Farmers Association led by Aguedo Bustos and Farmers’ Movement for Democracy under Isaias Arevalo.

It became Libertad when the people succeeded in their petition asking government officials to convert it into a regular barrio in 1960.  Libertad means freedom.  Freedom of the kaingineros from apprehensions made by the guardia monte since the area at that time was within the forest reserved of the Anakan Lumber Company.


                Libon is a Higaonon word means round.  The place was named after the 3 big houses of honeybees.


                Sta. Magdalena was the old name given to Lunao.  The name Sta. Magdalena was changed to Lunao under Teniente del Barrio Pedro Villegas because of a big group of a new settlers working at the newly established plywood factory operated by PII (Philippine Industries Inc.) occupied the central part of the area and built them houses like “mushrooms” which the natives called it “nang-lunaw” meaning “sprouted”.

Another legend of Lunao is that the word “lunao” comes from the sap of lumbia and buli palm trees.  The sap was known to the natives as “unaw” which when pounded and dried became a food substitute for the people during the difficult times.


During the ancient time, the original name of Lunotan was Nunotan because the place itself follows the flow of water in the river.  It is just like a paradise, abundance of diverse fruits, surrounded by virgin forest and diverse wild animals.

Another account is that the word was mispronounced and misspelled, for the legend had it that Lunotan was supposed to be to Lumotan.  Lumot was said to abound in the area.


                The name Malibud was given by a lowland hunter.  According to the settlers, this hunter happened to come to this place but could not find his way back until the morning.  They lost its way because the creek that was supposed to be his guide, resembles the intestine of the chicken, hence he had a difficulty in tracing the place where he started.  The creek was named Malibud creek from the Visayan word “Libog” means confused.  Seems the hunter was roaming around anywhere in Visayan means NAGLIBUDLIBUD.  The name of the creek and the incident happened was then used to name the place.  Later on, the place came to be called “Malibud”.


                Malinao was an old sitio of barangay Odiongan.  This place has two version of legend.  One was its deep rivers that formerly become fish sanctuary and breeding ground of a fish specie called “pili” which is closely associated with the ancient people of Gingoog in Daan Lungsod.

Second was the ritual called TAMPUDA (sabot-sabot sa kalinaw) of the natives headed by the three Mangomihay brothers.  According to Kagawad Dante Mangomihay, killings were rampant in those days perpetrated by the Magahat.  Later years, TAMPUDA was practice headed by Datu Eslaw Ambungan to remain the place peaceful.  So, TAMPUDA makes the place peaceful and brought Malinao as name of the barangay.



                During the olden days, there lived a tribal people in the place who planted rice, corn, camote, banana and other kind of plants.  One of them was kind and industrious.  Her name was Bucao.  She has a neighbor named Nigo who lived near the river.  Due to Bucao’s industriousness, she produced many seedlings and has many plants. Nigo wanted to have many seedlings and plants too.

One of the tribal names given to older women as sign of respect was Mari.  If strangers were asked where they get the seedlings that they planted, they directly pointed to neighbor named Nigo.  Nigo likewise pointed to Mari Bucao who possessed different kinds of seedlings.  Mari Bucao as she was kind shared her seedlings to all the people.  As years passed by Mari Bucao died and after her death, her friends and neighbors called the place Maribucao.



                Mimbalagon derived from the word “Min” for has or have and “Balagon” which means plant that abundantly grew in the place.  Balagon is a kind of sugarcane (violet in color and used for sinibog – homemade wine of the natives)


                Mimbuntong  –  abundant in bamboo trees.


                This area used to be full of different fruits notably lanzones and rambutan.   “Min” for has or have plus “bunga” for fruits.


                It was named after a thorny grass called “sapinit” which abundantly found in the place.




                Origin of the name is not clear.  Old folks interviewed several years ago revealed that Murallon could be “morag leyon” reflecting on the people’s temperamental behavior at that time.


                Long ago before the arrival of the foreigners, the place was called Budyongan, a name coined after budyong (a big shell used like a horn in calling the members of the village for immediate grouping and other purposes.

At the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, the place was under the leadership of Datu Udyong.  The Spaniards were impressed on the way he manipulated the budyong for sounding purposes that they called it Datu Udyong, in honor of him who used to be very cooperative to the Spanish regime.  Then the village was named Odiongan to the great satisfaction of the populace.






                Pandacdacan originated from a big and wide stone that becomes a “dacdacan” of the water vehicle called “gakit”.  Gakit is made up of round bamboos tied up together.  It runs to the flow and direction of the water.  The direction of the water goes to the position of the stone that will surely hit to the stone which means “dacdacan” until it developed into Pandacdacan as the name of the place.


                Long time ago, Pangasihan is a peaceful place.  The settlers were natives called “Gali”.  There were bountiful plants that grow in the area which was called “gase” – use by the people to catch fish for their food.

One day a stranger came.  He asked the people getting gase about the place. Since the Gali could not understand what the strangers said they answered “gase”, thinking that what this man asking about was the plant they brought.  When the stranger went home, his neighbors asked him where he came from he answered that he came from gasehan which the later days became “Pangasihan”



                It originated from the word Sinalohan.  There is a beautiful legend surrounding the name.  During the time of the natives, it was said that the chieftain had a beautiful and only daughter whom he does not want to marry.  It so happened that this young lady fell in love to the son of a chieftain of Butuan.  The chieftain’s word is the law in the village.  But it seemed that love is more powerful than the law, as the two lovers decided to elope.

The chieftain planted a bamboo to symbolize his anger.  The Butuan chieftain on the other hand had organized a group of consistent negotiators to appease the lady’s father.  As years go by, anger seemed to be healed by time as they decided to ask “Tampuda” (gathering with big dowry) from the Butuan chieftain.  So the chieftains in adjacent areas were invited to take part on everything like food and drinks during the wedding.

Thus, the place was called SINALOHAN, formally created in 1910.  But during the World War II, Sinalohan was abandoned by the people fearing the Japanese.  So they evacuated three kilometers further from the highway – to the forest and established their settlement which they called Pigsalohan in 1948.


                Punong means fishpond. Long time a go the place was just a coconut plantation traversed by the national highway. A fishpond was located near the sea. As days passed the tenants of the coconut plantation built houses near the seashore and near the national highway. Eventually the place was called Punong because of the presence of a fishpond nearby. The fishpond has long since been gone but the name Punong remained.


                The first name was Ricodo which means winding road.

Another account states that it was named Rico Oro because of its fertile lands.  Rico Oro means rich of gold, a promise for a better tomorrow, due to its land fertility and hospitable people.

Thus the place was called Ricorro.




                There was a couple living in this place immediately before the advent of the Dumagats who had a very beautiful daughter named Samay.  Since their house was located in the heart of the place, the lady’s name was used as reference of the locality.


                Most of the Historian says that the word Sangalan came from Sanga which means intersection.  The two rivers that intersect to each other and became into one big river that goes down toOdionganRiver.

Another legend tells us that the word Sangalan came from “Singalan” which means that if you are a stranger you will be targeted or thrown by pointed spears by the Magahat – people who lived in the place.


                Kiata – (which means just/fair) “Makiangayon” is the first name of the barangay given by the lumads who first dwelled in the place.  Before, the barangay was still a sitio of Barangay Malibud.  Ex-mayor Perfecto Ubalde initiated the change of the name from Kiata toSan Josein honor of their Patron Saint Sr. San Jose.


               San Juanwas established during the time when Daan Lungsod was still the seat of the government of the pueblo of Gingoog.  The first cabeza was Paulino Cabilto who worked hard so that the barrio and the school site could be properly delineated including the designation of San Juan Bautista as its patron saint.



                San Miguel was named after its patron saint.



Long, long time ago, before the coming of the Spanish conquistadors, a small tribe ruled by Chieftain Dayumpo.  The chieftain was killed during the encounter with the moros (sea pirate) and their bodies were laying flat along the seashore and the riverbanks.

After hundred of years after the discovery of thePhilippines, a group of Spanish conquistadors settled in the area.  With a native guide, they had seen and witnessed hundreds of skulls scattered along the shore and the riverbanks.  The native screamed “Minlagas” meaning a place of skulls.  “Min” is a native word for place and “lagas” meaning skull.

Another historical source averred that the name was associated with the cholera epidemic in 1902 where people would just die without much ado, like the matured lives that fall, “nangalagas”- “Min” a native word which means has and “lagas” which means fallen lives.

The name was change from Minlagas to San Luis after its patron saint, San Luis de Gonzaga.



                Long time ago, Malubog was a sitio of Daanlungsod, according to the native tribes, the word Malubog was derived from the running water that was always muddy or not clean.  They believe that the upper area ofCasingpitanRiverwas covered with thick or dense forest, which was the dwelling place of the animals. The wild animals especially the wild pigs were always roaming along the river to look for food.  The footsteps made the river muddy and unsafe.

The Higa-onon tribe prayed and performed religious offerings to their God for the belief that the water will still become clean and will provide sufficient water to all inhabitants in the sitio. Later, their prayers were granted.  The water ofCasingpitanRiverbecame pure and clean.  The people of Malubog were very happy because the river was good and ready to serve the whole inhabitants of the area.

In 1967, a couple offered a donation of a lot area for the school site, but with the condition that the name Malubog will be changed to Santiago in honor of the donee Santiago Abad and the school will be named Sta. Rita after his wife, Rita Cuerdo Abad.

The barrio council approved that Malubog will be changed to Barangay Santiago.


                Sio-an’s early inhabitants are referred to as Higaonon.  The structure of their dialect makes it certain that they come from within the limits of theprovinceofMisamis Oriental.  It has its own name origin to stand for.  Senior Higaonon citizens therein claimed as told and retold by their ancestors that the name SIO-AN is a Chinese (Mandarin) word.  The origin of which is attributed to those Chinese who belong to the group of early traders (1280) to thePhilippines.  SIO means “most beautiful place” while AN means “most peaceful place”.


                The pioneers in the place were the natives.   One was Datu Magdaging who served as the ruler in the place.  They named the place Magdaging to honor the ruler.  When the natives migrated to other places Magdaging was changed to Tagdaging because the word Tagdaging is easy to utter according to the people living in the place.


                Edible ferns called “pako” were abundant in the place hence the name Tagpako.  It was possibly given by Bonifacio delosSantos, a Higaonon native, who was then the administrator of the site together with five other natives.




                Talisay was formerly called Binuangan.  It was the most feared settlement in Gingoog going eastward.  It was because of the attacks made by the Magahats (wild people) on the settlers.  The settlers had to prepare themselves for the worst and use big boats to escape to the sea as last resort.

In later years, a Catholic priest, Father Edward Wasil (an American), the Parochial Priest of Gingoog Parish noticed the presence of talisay trees abounding the area.  Talisay fruit or nut is very famously referred to as an example in the story of the value of sharing.  In sharing a very small volume of food among friends or member of a group, the small talisay nut is cited as the legendary example to demonstrate the value of equal sharing no matter how meager or little or small is the food to divide.

Father Wasil consulted the sitio people by changing the name from Binuangan to Talisay.  They happened in mid 1920.  Since then, the place was called sitio Binuangan or sitio Talisay and it became an official barrio later.


                They name the place talon because of the presence of five waterfalls which are very nice to look at.


                The name was coined after a man who was mutilated by Magahat native who run amuck.  The victims’ body appeared like Tinabal (a salted fish).  The said body was cut similar to a salted fish.


                “Topside”  this was its name by certain “Walter” a manager of  ALCO Anakan Lumber Corporation in 1930s’ because he wants a word side just like side-2, side 7 and side-11.  He derived this name because Topside is the farthest area among the place within the name has the word side

Appendix  B

   Some of the artifacts recovered from a test pit in Sitio Dubdub, Barangay Cahulogan which is presumed to be an ancient burial site. The test pit was dug by an archaeologist fromXavierUniversity, Cagayan de Oro City. According to experts from Xavier, these Chinese porcelain items dates back to the Sung Dynasty. (Photos courtesy of Dr. Erlinda M. Burton- curator, Xavier University Museo de Oro.)

Another Chinese ancient Chinese item recovered from the burial site in Dubdub

A Chinese porcelain plate, probably dating back to the Sung Dynasty

The test pit shortly after the artifacts were recovered

A jar with the figure of a dragon embedded along its side, probably of Sung Dynasty origin

Another item from the burial site in Dubdub, Cahulogan

Another item from the burial site in Dubdub, Cahulogan

A common clay jar, probably made inBoholthat was included in the  burial pit



(Maps courtesy of the City Planning and Development Section, City of Gingoog care of Mr. Manuel Nambatac)

  1. The 79 Barangays ofGingoogCity
  1. Map Reflecting the Total Number of Households inGingoogCityas of the year 2000
  1. Map reflecting the Population inGingoogCityas of the year 2000
  1. Map reflecting the number and location of schools inGingoogCity
  1. Map reflecting the location and  kinds of crops inGingoogCity
  2. Map reflecting the number of voters inGingoogCityas of 2000


Pictures from Gingoog’s Past

The inside of the old Sta. Rita Church

The old Sta. Rita Church convent

















Vice Mayor – Julio Valdevilla

Councilors – Macario Mariano

Julio Ganaban

Perfecto Ubalde

Pablo Tapia

Victoria Padilla

Municipal Treasurer-Julito Arengo


Gingoog became a city on July 23, 1960. Boholanos dined with President Carlos P. Garcia and First Lady Dona Liling Garcia.

On the presidential table were Mrs. Protasia Z. Cainglet, Mrs. Augstina Bagaipo, Mrs. Laura Aguilar, First Lady Liling Garcia, President Carlos P Garcia, Mrs. Florencita Pollentes  & Mrs. Amada Butalid Lumayog and Mrs. Rita V. Ramirez

Cutting the ribbon during the inauguration of the Rizal monument at theMagsaysayParkby Mrs. Veronica Rodriguez, mother of ex-mayor Romulo Rodriguez, Mrs. Protasia  Z. Cainglet, wife of Provincial Board Member of Misamis Oriental Macario Cainglet Sr., Carmen de Lara, wife of Congressman Vicente de Lara with Juan Sanchez, Mr. Joaquin Jumo  & Mr. Ypil. Photo taken December 30, 1935.

The first municipal officials of the reorganized Municipality of Gingoog as an independent of Talisayan, MIsamis Oriental on June 5, 1908. Standing from left to right: Mr. Alejo Jumo, Mr. Bernaldo Gundaya, Sotero Gomez and Vicente Sanchez.

Sitting from left to right: Messrs. Maximino Gundaya, Narciso Rodriguez, Bautista Gomez, Simon Teatro, Procopio Cuerdo, SIxto Camara, Catalino Condeza, Manuel Lugod (Municipal President) Pedro de Lara, Paulino Cabilto, Alejandro Gomez, Andres Abad, Benigno Guanzon and Baltazar Guno.

Appendix E



1880. Kim Guaqn Seng. Owned by Tiu Machay from Cebu.

Part of Baol Building, one of the oldest commercial buildings in Gingoog.


    The house of Cipriano Caña in Odiongan, built in out of sales of sweet potato

in his farm


1924. Near Gingoog Rural Bank. Owned by Julio Zagas Mercado. Owned

Presently by Avelito Nadal et al.

1932. This house is owned by Eusebio Hurtado

1920.In Daan Lungsod. This house is owned by Sizu Si Ching and Lao Suy

1903. This house is owned by Catalino Condeza

1909. This Gabaldon Building is within Manuel Lugod Elementary School

Formerly known as North City Central School.

1881. This house is owned by Gaw Tian To & Co Su Ong

1925. Owned by Fortunato de Lara

1925. This house in Odiongan, formerly owned by Ricardo Mocon,

is now owned by the heirs of Adolfo and Daniela Hurtado

1835. Owned by Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Sanchez, Sr.

1930. Owned by Apolinar de Lara and Ceferina Condeza

1935. Owned by Gaw Tian To. Now owned by Santiago Guanzon and Maria Co.

1934. In Odiongan. Owned by Jacinto Malimas

1937. Owned by Romualdo Guanzon Sr. It is a hotel building named

Mansion by the Sea

1835. Owned by Matias Rodriguez and Encarnacion de Lara

1926. Owned by Tomas Sanchez and Consolacion Jumo Cuerdo

1924. Built by Carmelo Co and Rosalia Lugsanay


1924. Owned by Alejandro Gomez and Consolacion Jumo

1926. Owned by Romulo de Lara Rodriguez and Veronica Saluper

Pre-War house owned by Don Chino Roces of Sta Clara Logging.

Now houses the RVM Congregation in Gingoog City

1928. Owned by Baldomero Gundaya now owned by the

Lugsanay family

The educational leaders of the Division of Gingoog City. From left to right:

Dr. Myrna S. Motoomull, School Division Superintendent, Dr. Leovigilda G. Guanzon, ES-HE,Mrs/. Lora M. Villafranca (partly hidden) ES I-SPED/Private Schools, Dr. Adelina G. Sanchez, ES I-ALS, Dr. Myrna J. Cezar, ES I-Math(Secondary), Ms. Corazon R. Taño, ES I-English (Secondary), Dr. Evelyn G. Cañosa ES I-English (Elementary), (partly hidden), Mrs. Marina S. Limcangco, ES I-Filipino, Dr. Lucero O. Quiachon,Mr. Crisanto P. Laurosa, ES I – Vocational Education(partly hidden)Assistant Schools Div. Superintendent, Ms. Fredswinda S. Teatro, ES I-Social Studies, Mrs. Luzviminda Lofranco, ES I-Science, Mr. Pablito B. Altubar, ES I-PESS/Physical Facilities Coordinator, Mr. Leovigildo A. Magalzo, ES I-Values Education(partly hidden) and Mr. Aprodicio Rosiolado, ES I-Mathematics (Elementary)

Odiongan River, the biggest and the longest river in Gingoog City, has its source in

Mt. Lumot, near the Gingoog-Claveria border. The concrete structure is the

One of the two pylons of the dismantled Magsaysay Bridge, which are now in

Balantian, Lawit and Malibud-Kamanikan

Odiongan Bridge, which spans Odiongan River, is the third bridge to span the river.

Built during the Marcos era, this bridge is an improvement over the previous one-lane

Magsaysay Bridge

The old city hall building, also known as Casa Tribunal is now in a state of disrepair. This

Structure is located in Rizal Street, near the City Fire Station

Mt. Balatukan, the highest peak in Northern Mindanao, looks over the city of Gingoog and

in the towns of Balingasag, Claveria and Medina

One of the landmarks in Gingoog City, this Iglesia Ni Kristo chapel

is located in Guanzon Extension, now Mercado Street

This is the church building of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP)

In Magallanes Gingoog City


Resolution inviting personnel fromXavierUniversityMuseumto conduct exploratory dig inGingoogCityand for the possibility of establishing a museum in the city

(Courtesy of Dr. Erlinda

M. Burton, XU Museum curator)

Republic of thePhilippines


Office of the Sangguniang Panglungsod



Hon. Mike Paderanga, City Mayor & Presiding Officer

Hon. Felino E. Gundaya                       Vice Mayor

Hon. Ruben H. Nambatac                   Kagawad

Hon. Alfredo “Dulat” Motoomull       Kagawad

Hon. William Z. Valdevilla                  Kagawad

Hon. Placido G. Mira                          Kagawad

Hon. Santiago L. Co                             Kagawad

Hon. Melquiades de la Cruz               Kagawad




            WHEREAS, in the special session of March 18, 1980, this Honorable Body was presented with material traces, which were discovered in Sitio Dudub, Kahulogan, Gingoog City;

WHEREAS, knowledgeable representatives from Xavier University Museum, Cagayan de Oro City, dated the excavated pottery as early as the 12th to the 14th centuries belonging to the Ming Dynasty;

WHEREAS, the discoverable artifacts are valuable primarily for the data which they contribute to the ever-increasing record of Man’s crowded and colorful past;

NOW, THEREFORE, considering the menace that can be done by curio hunters who may steal artifacts and destroy evidences, and considering the need for amateur work which follow proper methods of excavation, and severally moved and severally seconded by all the members of the Sangguniang Panglungsod present be it,

RESOLVED, as this Honorable Body hereby resolves, to cordially invite amateur archaeologists from Xavier University Museum, who were duly deputized by the National Museum for Northern Mindanao, to come to Gingoog City to undertake the scientific excavation of artifacts within the land of the late PABLO SANCHEZ of Sitio Dubdub, Kahulogan, Gingoog City;

RESOLVED FURTHER, to express the sense of this Body, that the City ofGingoogis willing to enter into an agreement with theNationalMuseum, throughXavierUniversityMuseum, Cagayan de Oro City, and the landowner relevant to the extraction of artifacts.

LET CERTIFIED COPIES of this resolution be furnished Father Francisco Demetrio, S.J., Xavier University Museum, Cagayan de Oro City, for his information and kind consideration, the Officer In-Charge, the National Museum, Metro Manila, for his information and proper guidance, and the heirs of the late PABLO SANCHEZ, all of Gingoog City, for their proper guidance.


I HEREBY CERTIFY to the correctness of the foregoing resolution.


Secretary, Sangguniang Panglungsod


Report of theXavierUniversityMuseumon the explorations they have conducted in Sitio Dubdub, Cahulogan, GingoogCity

 (Courtesy of Dr. Erlinda M. Burton, XU Museum curator)



In spite of the progress of archaeological work in thePhilippinesthere are still numerous places that need to be explored and investigated in the light of their archaeological contents and significance. One of these areas isNorthern Mindanaowherein very little has been done except around Cagayan de Oro City. It is not primarily neglect on the part of some institutions, but rather due to lack of qualified personnel and funds to support such a project. Consequently, archaeological research in the country has suffered many setbacks. In the first, there is a laxity in the implementation of the resolutions on the preservation of antiquities; secondly, is the rampant vandalism and destruction of sites for their artifactual contents. The end results of such activities is not only the loss of national treasures, but a vaccum remains in the chronological history of thePhilippines.

Archaeological research in thePhilippinesshould achieve a more realistic theoretical description of Philippine prehistory. The effort should be directed toward refining classification and working out detailed chronological sequences and interrelations of cultures within the areas. These data are valuable because they are readily understood and will finally provide us with the kind of information we need to test our theories. Furthermore, it is hoped that research would pave a way wherein we can truly comprehend the basis of the contemporary Pilipino society and achieve a kind of national self-identity. This awareness can only be realized through searching our past by supported excavation of archaeological sites which will give us some answers to the problems of cultural development of the Filipino society.

This report is the result of an archaeological investigation in Dubdub, Kahulugan, Gingoog city.

A Concerned Citizen Reported to XU Folk Life Museum

Sometime in early March, 1980, Rex Wong, an architect, sent a letter to Fr. Francisco Demetrio, Chairman of Department of Philippine Studies and Curator of XU Folk life Museum, requesting for a museum personnel to investigate an archaeological site in Gingoog City that has been vandalized and looted and the artifacts found were sold to antique collectors. With the fear of losing these priceless items when sold outside the city, the Wong family bought about 50 items  of varied forms-jars, bowls, saucers, powder box, etc., to be preserved and exhibited in their home.

In response to the request, Juanito Demetrio, a consultant to the Philippine Studies Department,XavierUniversityconducted an archaeological survey on April 18, 1990 at Dubdub, Kahulogan,GingoogCity.

Role of the City Government of Gingoog

On April 18,1980, Mr. Demetrio paid a courtesy call to Hon. Mike Paderanga, City Mayor, who at that time, was the presiding officer of a special session of the Sangguniang Panglungsod. The Mayor and SP were very much concerned of the vandalized site and decided to control the menace caused by the treasure hunters. As a result, the SP unanimously passed resolution # 37 providing that the city is willing to enter into agreement withXavierUniversityandNationalMuseumin conducting archaeological excavations in Dubdub and neighboring areas. Moreover, the city also appropriated P 10,000.00 for the said project. A committee was also formed to conduct a feasibility study in establishing a museum inGingoogCity

The Site

The site is located in sitio Dubdub, Kahulogan,a bout 2 kilometers south of the city. Land area is about 1 hectare owned by the heirs of Narciso Reyes and situated near Kahulogan River, a tributary west of Cagayan de Oro City and 79 kilometers east of Butuan City.

Test pits established

On April 7 to 9, 1980, JUanito Demetrio and Albert Vamenta, assistant Curator of XU Folklife Museum, established 2 test pits in the area. The artifacts recovered were broken pieces of earthenware, 7n pieces of net sinkers, broken pieces of blue and white bowl which belong to the Early Ming Dynasty (late 14th through early 16th Centuries), and broken pieces of lead glazed stoneware which belong to the Sung-Yuan Dynasties (960 to 1368 AD), and fragments of human bones. Artifacts began to appear at 20 cm from the surface and concentration gradually increased until 110 cm. Associated with the potsherd were a group of round stones with average diameter of 4 cm. The unearthed artifacts were placed in labeled plastic bags and were properly documented in a log book.


GingoogCityis an old settlement. It is probable that the settlers of Gingoog had trade contact with Chinese traders who also had contact with the people of Jolo, Sulu, Zamboanga, Camiguin, and Butuan, starting 13th to the 14th centuries AD and probably earlier. The Chines brought with them silk, porcelain, gold, iron, colored glass beads and lead in exchange with yellow wax, cotton, pearls, tortoise shell, betel nuts and cloth. Of all the Chinese goods, porcelain is significant since most of the archaeological sites of the Philippines yield porcelain wares associated with bones and earthenware in which dating could easily be established.

Though merely household and utilitarian vesels in China, the trade potteries were unquestionably the most prized possessions of the early Filipinos. Among contemporary mountain people, stoneware jars and porcelain bowls and plates are still among the most highly valued heirloom. These trade wares were linked with rituals and for infant and secondary burial. According to Robert Fox, one of the main factors which account for the incredible quantity of Asian trade pottery which has been in Philippines archaeological sites is the fact that trade pottery was favored by the Filipino for pabaon or grave furniture, during burial rituals. They were to contain offerings for the dead during their journey to and afterworld or simply something precious for the departed. Invariably, it was the graves of the youngest individual, infants and children which contained the most trade pottery.

Most of the findings in the test pits were broken pieces of earthenware. Before the appearance of  China ares, the low fired Filipino made pottery (termed used by the people of Dubdub as “sano” believing that they were made in Bohol) had been extensively used in ritual purposes and “grave furniture” since Neolithic times, about 1500 B.C., example of the earthenware findings is the native pots excavated in Huluga caves, Cagayan de Oro City. This local earthenware was apparently rivaled by the wide range of beautiful and exotic porcelain and stoneware.

Net sinkers, also common in archaeological sites like Sta. Ana Manila andUpper Magting, Camiguin. Obviously, the dead person buried in the test pit # 1 was a fisherman.

One striking feature in the 2 test pit is the presence of cluster of stones or stone slabs associated with the artifact and skeletal remain. In Camiguin, archaeological sites revealed slabs of stones usually having geometrical shapes. These stone might have ritual functions in burying the dead or they might be mere markers of the graves just as the cross to the Christian grave.


The site was greatly disturbed and , therefore, scientific conservation is not advisable. However, some recommendations are hereby presented:

  1. Further archaeological survey of the neighboring areas especially in Daang Lungsod.
  2. Future accidental discovery of sites must be reported immediately to the city government to give security to the place and to the XU Folklife Museum,XavierUniversity, Cagayan de Oro City.
  3. The city government should be strict in imposing the provision of P.D. No. 374.
  4. A cultural/historical society must composed of civic minded citizens should be formed to coordinate with the city government in undertaking projects like establishing museum, researches, cultural shows, and vigilance in safeguarding archaeological sites.



  1. Felicisimo Q. Patrimonio              1976
  2. Arsenio B. Flores                           August 1977
  3. Benjamin O. Valido                       July 1978
  4. Victoriano A. Pasiliao                    March 1981
  5. Fe Dumlao Acantilado                  July 1986
  6. Teresita B. Crisologo                    November 1986
  7. Thelma R. Rocha, Ph.D.                December 1986
  8. Antonio L. Intong                           October 27, 1987
  9. Rosemary P. Gellor, Ed.D.                        June 13, 1994
  10. Priscilla C. Villanueva, Ph.D.         November 18, 1996
  11. Sinforosa A. Guiñares,Ph.D.          August 24, 2000
  12. Angelita H. Gomez                        October 2, 2001
  13. Myrna S. Motoomull, Ed.D.          June 10, 2004
  14. Cherry Mae L. Limbaco,Ph. D.        March 10, 2008

Appendix I




  1. Christ theKingCollege(Elem. Dept.)
  2. GingoogChristianCommunitySchool
  3. GingoogCityChristianSchool
  4. GingoogCityJunior College
  5. GingoogCitySDAElem.School
  6. Gingoog City Villafranca School Inc.
  7. Grace Christian School Inc.
  8. Guevarra Institute of Technology
  9. UCCP-ChildDevelopmentFormationCenter
  10. Chinese Elementary School run by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce in Gingoog City in 1952.


  1. Christ theKingCollege
  2. GingoogChristianCollege(CMCC)
  3. Gingoog CityJunior College
  4. Gingoog City Villafranca School Inc.
  5. GingoogSDAAcademy
  6. Guevarra Institute of Technology
  7. Mount Sio-an Academy
  8. Saint Mary’s Academy


  1. Christ theKingCollege
  2. GingoogChristianCollege
  3. GingoogCityJunior College
  4. Guevarra Institute of Technology
  5. Systems Technology Institute (STI) Gingoog Campus
  6. GingoogCityComputerSchool
  7. Goodwill Computer Foundation



  1. OdionganCentralSchool                    Carmelita Q. Manitlla                        P II
  2. Dinwehan ES                                       Concesa P. Cajipe                   HT II
  3. Dreamland ES                                     Romeo J. Abao                        SIC
  4. Dukdokaan ES                                     Landy V. MAndahinog             SIC
  5. Dulag ES                                              Archie A. Apduhan                  SIC
  6. EurekaIS Elem Dept.                          Edgardo V. Abanil                   P I
  7. Impaluhod ES                                      Debora R. Camay                    HT II
  8. Kalipay ES                                            Genara M. Tingabngab           P I
  9. Kamanikan ES                                     Elvira A. Denoso                      HT III
  10. Kianlagan ES                                       Alberto C. Cahoy                     HT III
  11. Kidahon ES                                          Nicomar F. Butalid                  HT III
  12. Malibud ES                                          Catalina P. Rubin                    HT III
  13. Malinao ES                                          Liza C. Camasin                       HT III
  14. Maribucao ES                                      Melodina F. Mabunga                        SIC
  15. Mimpakiki PS                                      Gerry V. Mandahinog             SIC
  16. Pandacdacan ES                                  Imelda R. Fabe                                    MT II/SIC
  17. Pangasihan ES                                     Francisca D. Dalit                    P I
  18. San JoseES                                          FelixS. Alpuerto                      HT III
  19. Sangalan ES                                        ClintonF. Badilla                     HT III
  20. Silangan PS                                          Nemesio B. Micubo                SIC
  21. Sio-an ES                                             Gelfredo J. Abao                     P I
  22. Tagdaging ES                                      Joel G. Ranan                          SIC
  23. Tagpako ES                                         CarolinaE. Jomen                   HT III
  24. Talisay ES                                            Evelyn M. Sumastre                P I
  25. Talon ES                                              JulitoS. Bayucot                      SIC
  26. Topside ES                                           Alfredo N. Abucejo                  SIC



  1. Anakan CentralSchool                       Narcisa B. Sabello                   P II
  2. Bagubad ES                                         Felicisimo M. Calo                  HT II
  3. Bal-ason ES                                         Virginia Mamaran                  P I
  4. Daan Lungsod ES                                  Susan H. Gundaya                  HT III
  5. Hindangon ES                                      Carlos U. Ortiz                                    HT III
  6. Lawaan ES                                           Leonardo S. Martin                 HT III
  7. Lawit ES                                               Lina L. Mamaki                       SIC
  8. Libon ES                                               Jaime B. Caduyac                    MT II/SIC
  9. Mamaran ES                                       David S. Ugsid                         HT III
  10. Mangilit PS                                          Rubio S. Lopez                         SIC
  11. Mimbalagon ES                                   Belen A. Señara                      SIC
  12. Mimbunga ES                                      Dionesio M. Casiñares Jr        HT III
  13. MInsapinit ES                                      Roberto Jomen Jr.                   HT III
  14. Punong ES                                           Pedro N. Putol                         HT III
  15. Sta. Rita ES                                          Christina M. Bagsican             P I
  16. Tinabalan ES                                       Juanita B. Mejares                  HT III


  1. LunaoCentralSchool                          Rodavallo B. Butalid               P II
  2. Agay-ayan ES                                      Brenda B. Villacorta               P I
  3. Alagatan ES                                         Samuel O. BIngat                    SIC
  4. Bantaawan ES                                     Rey N. Oblig                            HT III
  5. Baybay ES                                            Elizalde R. Jumo Jr.                 P I
  6. Binakalan ES                                       Roserenie B. Ortiz                   MT i/SIC
  7. Doña Josefa P. Reyes                          Leticia C. Agosajes                  P I
  8. Eustaquio Teneza ES                           Tedoducia Sabucdalao            SIC
  9. Fructoso Rife ES                                  Michael T. Amper                   SIC
  10. Kalagonoy ES                                       Susana B. Labial                      HT II
  11. Kibuging PS                                         Teresita A.  Cuñado                SIC
  12. Kipuntos ES                                          Joel L. Bangcong                     SIC
  13. Mimbuntong ES                                  Rosalia O. Golis                       SIC
  14. Mindulean ES                                      Noreen G. Navarro                 SIC
  15. Murallon ES                                        Leah L. Tacandong                  HT III
  16. Pedro Maligmat ES                             Verna P. Patindol                    P I
  17. Pigsalohan ES                                      Cayetana A. Gagno                 HT III
  18. San JuanES                                         Wilfredo M. Labial                  P II
  19. Sulpecio Lugod ES                               Teresita M. Caingles               HT III
  20. Tinulongan PS                                     Janice Baldelovar                    SIC










  1. DonRestitutoBaolCentralSchool     Rodrigande J. Miole                P II

Elvira A. Almonte                    P I

  1. Alfonso Ang Militante ES                    Virgilio B. Paler                       P I
  2. Brgy 18-A PS                                      NildaU.Villegas                    MTII/SIC
  3. Civoleg ES                                           Edgar A. Alaba                                    HT II
  4. Esik Campilan ES                                 Victoria Gundaya                    SIC
  5. Lunotan ES                                          Michael C. Anggaon               SIC
  6. Magallanes PS                                               LydiaP. Apal                           MT I/SIC
  7. Manuel Lugod ES                                Manuel P. Sabal                      P II
  8. Ramon Arevalo ES                              Estrella C. del Rosario                        HT III
  9. Ricoro ES                                             Paul P. Borres                         HT III
  10. Roy Viscarra ES                                   Erma A. Balisco                       MT I/SIC


















  1. GingoogCityComprehensive NHS     Idjya D. Yder                           P II
  2. BACKKISMI NHS                                  Antonio A. Maestre                 MT I/SIC
  3. Bal-ason NHS                                      Evangeline P. Dadulo              P I
  4. EurekaIntegrated School                   Edgardo V. Abanil                   P I
  5. Kalipay NHS                                         Epitacio P. Lauroza                 HT I
  6. Malibud NHS                                       Samuel C. Yder                       HT III
  7. Malinao NHS                                       Arlinda A. Micu                       HT III
  8. Mimbunga NHS                                   Cresenciana T. Cabrera          P I
  9. Odiongan NHS                                     Cirilo B. Ayensa                       P I
  10. Talisay NHS                                                     -do-
  11. San Luis NHS                                       Edwin J. Evangelista                P I

Appendix K


  1. Fr. Gregorio Parache, SJ                     –                       1884
  2. Fr. Ramon Famies, SJ                          –                       1896 – 1899
  3. Fr. Juan Llopart, SJ                              –                       1899 – 1901
  4. Fr. Salvador Buguña, SJ                       –                       1902 – 1909
  5. Fr. Matias Roure, SJ                            –                       1909 – 1927
  6. Fr. Alfred Kionla, SJ                             –                       1927 – 1931
  7. Fr. John O’Connel, SJ                           –                       1931 – 1934
  8. Fr. Agustin Consunji, SJ                       –                       1934 – 1935
  9. Fr. Calixto Yamba, SJ                          –                       1935 – 1936
  10. Fr. Augustine Bello, SJ                         –                       1942 – 1946
  11. Fr. Edward Wasil, SJ                            –                       1946 – 1951
  12. Fr. George Kirchgessner, SJ                –                       1951 – 1956
  13. Fr. William Adams, SSC                      –                       1956 – 1963
  14. Fr. Martin Ryan, SSC                           –                       1963 – 1968
  15. Fr. Dennis Miscall, SSC                       –                       1968 – 1971
  16. Fr. William Cunnane, SSC                   –                       1971 – 1973
  17. Fr. John Gilmore, SSC                          –                       1973 – 1977
  18. Fr. John Fleming, SSC                          –                       1978 – 1979
  19. Fr. Policarpo Gumapo, SSC                 –                       1979 – 1982
  20. Fr. Peter Pacuribot, MSP                    –                       1982 – 1986
  21. Fr. Luis Regalado                                –                       1986 – 1988
  22. Fr. Bartolome Llenas, SSJV                 –                       1988
  23. Fr. Cirilo Isnane, SSJV                          –                       1988
  24. Fr. Jose Villamil, SSJV                          –                       1992 – 1995
  25. Fr. Cesar Ageas, SSJV                          –                       1993
  26. Fr. Enerio Tacastacas, SSJV                 –                       1996 – 2001
  27. Msgr.TexLegitimas, SSJV, PC                        –                       2001 -2006
  28. Fr.  Joel Lusat, SSJV                             –                       2006 –present

Appendix L


                      UCCP MINISTER                                  YEAR/S OF SERVICE

1.  Rev. Graciano T. Alegado                                        1936 – 1949

2.  Rev. Lamberto Labastida                                         1949 – 1950

3.  Rev. Proceso Udarbe                                                                1950 – 1951

4.  Rev. Angel Taglucop, Sr.                                          1951 – 1952

5.  Rev. Teofilo Pacot                                                      1952 – 1953

6.  Rev. Pedro Raterta                                                    1953 – 1954

7.  Graciano T. Alegado                                                  1954 – 1957

8.  Jacinto Dayola                                                              1957 – 1958

9.  Rev. Cenon Adobas                                                   1958 – 1959

10.  Rev. Samuel M. Raterta                                        1959 – 1960

11.  Rev. Graciano T. Alegado                                      1960 – 1963

12.  Rev. Juam Uriarte, Jr.                                             1963 – 1967

13.  Rev. Helario Gomez, Jr.                                         1967 – 1969

14.  Rev. Florentina Z. Alegado                                   1969 – 1971

15.  Rev. Pedro Ople                                                       1971 – 1976

16.  Rev. Florentina Z. Alegado                                   1976 – 1978

17.  Rev. Alpio Badilla                                                      1979 – 1981

18.  Rev. Rhenerio A. Dadulo                                       1981 – 1989

19.  Rev. Elmer L.  Saa                                                     1989 – 1991

20.  Rev. Filemon Sino, Jr.                                             1991 – (2 months)

21.  Rev. Olimpio Bonotan                                            1991 – 1993

22.  Rev. Ligaya San Francisco                                      1993 – 1998

23.  Rev. Rhenerio A. Dadulo                                       1998 – 2004

24.  Rev. Rosemarie B. Gulfo                                       2004 – 2008

Appendix M

Written by EdAbs

June 1, 2011 at 4:14 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Tagged with , ,

22 Responses

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  1. I was amazed to know that Gingoog City has a colorful and wonderful history. I have have spent 2 years of my life there from 1979 to 1981 as part of the team that implemented the construction of the water supply system for the Gingoog City Water District. A young engineer then, i came to love the place and its people. I would have stayed there for good, for some reasons, I did not. Now, after reading this article all about the place, it’s now an obsession that one day i will be able to return to the place, see what it is now, see old friends and reminisce my past.

    My appreciation to those people who worked to have this article/history of Gingoog City published. I know more on Gingoog City now.

    sonny capalad

    December 4, 2011 at 12:37 am

    • it was nice to know the history of my birth place …thank you for this information without this info ill still dont know the meaning of gingoog….

      minda grace timbal chong

      March 19, 2012 at 7:42 am

  2. it’s the time to know the detailed profile of GINGOOG CITY.

    Eufrocina Mapa

    July 2, 2012 at 3:45 pm

  3. bro,mukhang kulang ang mga idenitalye mo dito sa iyong kuwento….nag research kaba sa totoong tao na pinag tanongan mo???????

    mappaul lambatan

    July 22, 2012 at 1:40 pm

    • Thanks for your comment. There are really parts that need corroboration but we cannot do this given the limited resources.


      July 24, 2012 at 12:05 am

  4. I was mesmerised reading this article/history of Gingoog City. The author has to be commended for the hard work he must have put into this. I was a former resident of Gingoog City (1970 to 1985) and I have read some information about the history of Gingoog when I was working at the City Auditor’s Office, but this was one was absolutely thorough. Glad to be able to read this.

    Aster Wilkin (United Kingdom)

    October 1, 2012 at 6:11 pm

  5. I only have few acquaintances with the Gingoog historian, the late Bebito Aniscal.

    Elbert Salagantin

    April 27, 2013 at 5:45 pm

  6. thanks for the effort that you have done, presenting the historic of our beloved city of gingoog. even though i am not growing up here in my city of birth but i turn it back and stay when i got married. i found ur website its because of my topic to be report is all about socio-economic development program in Gingoog City.

    marittes Sepe Pagayaman

    May 4, 2013 at 6:58 pm

  7. Is there a book form that i can purchase?


    October 11, 2013 at 4:37 pm

    • Not yet Mic, as of now we don’t have the capability for an e-book format.


      November 12, 2015 at 4:38 am

  8. Why is it that gingoog history was not taught or atleast integrated in our history subjects. I could not remember even one teacher during my elementary and secondary years that taught us or even storytell about gingoog city’s history…cant it be teach or integrate to our history subjects?

    Sofia luz g calvez

    July 22, 2014 at 5:32 pm

  9. How can there be Japanese soldiers from Davao in Gingoog in 1938 when war with Japan officially started in December 7 1941 with the bombing of Pearl Harbor?


    October 20, 2014 at 7:04 am

    • Thanks for your comment Kerwin. I will check the sources. As I have stated in the preface, this is a collaborative work of the Master Teachers in Gingoog City as a Division Social Studies project and the content needs to be refereed as to its historical validity. Our main handicap is that we cannot work full time as we have our main jobs to work on.


      October 21, 2014 at 8:21 am

    • Hello Kerwin, good to be back. I checked the facts and the WWII was in 1941. We will try to correct this error in due time. Thanks for your valuable feedback.


      April 17, 2015 at 1:38 am

  10. Whoever collaborated this History of Gingoog has to be commended. Although mainly incognito, but thanks to a group of educators who salvage this piece of Gem and breathe life to a past bespoke of rich culture of Gingoog. May I just comment on the facts presented under “How the name Gingoog came to be” with the mentioned of Bingue, Binguela as Leaders of the group called Manobos and there were Ondok, Mankinaug, Mambanata, Aguipo, Kubong, Sabaa..” while Kubong was acknowledged, in the succeeding topic “The Christian Era” in 1723 Kubong was missed. When Ondok was baptized he was named Santiago Gundaya, as to Mankinaug he was baptized as Javier Gundaya. I suggest that it would be great to research how the name Kubong came to be. As my direct ancestor, Kubong was baptized as Consuelo Gundaya. Where my assertion deemed fit, i hope the history of Gingoog reflects her name.

    Rebecca A. Visorro

    July 10, 2015 at 1:35 pm

    • Yes Vic we really missed out on that but our main source is the DepED souvenir program and no other documents. I hope somebody can provide us historical documents so we can include this in succeeding editions. Thank you.


      November 12, 2015 at 4:37 am

  11. Yes, Gingoog have buses carrying people around Mindanao but is it true that Gingoog once had shipping vessels for transporting people and cargoes to Visayas that used to dock at the Gingoog pier? How about the mail & cargo airplanes of Philippine Airlines serving Gingoog? Do you have information about these? Decoration at pasyalan lang ba talaga ng mga taga Gingoog ang pier ng Gingoog noon?


    November 1, 2015 at 1:16 pm

    • Thanks for your inputs Joy. Gingoog wharf was once busy with Cebu- and Manila bound vessels but as days passed the volume of passengers may no longer be enough for business to be viable. I heard of an airport in Barangay Mimbunga but as far as I know it serviced the Anakan Lumber Company planes. I did not hear of an airmail service here during those days.


      November 12, 2015 at 4:35 am

  12. So, Gingoog have buses ran by a pakistani moving people around Mindanao but did somebody informed you that for several years sea vessels from a certain Cebu shipping company transported people and cargoes to Visayas & Luzon and used the pier for docking those vessels? How about the mail/cargo airplanes of Philippine Airlines? Do you personally believe these stories did happened once in Gingoog?


    November 2, 2015 at 1:41 am

  13. So, Gingoog has Land Transportation ran by a pakistani moving people around Mindanao but did anybody told you that for several years sea vessels from a certain Cebu shipping company transported people and cargoes to Visayas & to Luzon and used the pier for docking those vessels? How about the ‘air mails’ the airplanes of Philippine Air Lines (PAL) moving the letters of the people there? Do you believe that these stories did really happened once upon a time in Gingoog?


    November 2, 2015 at 1:17 pm

    • Yes Oscar we learned about these things but we decided not to include yet due to lack of records. I myself when I was seven years old saw the ships docking at Gingoog wharf. I also heard about about an airport in Mimbunga but as of now this has become a coconut plantation. I appreciate your feedback.


      November 12, 2015 at 4:31 am

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